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Sex chromosome evolution in snakes inferred from divergence patterns of two gametologous genes and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences

Overview of attention for article published in Zoological Letters, August 2016
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Title
Sex chromosome evolution in snakes inferred from divergence patterns of two gametologous genes and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences
Published in
Zoological Letters, August 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40851-016-0056-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Kazumi Matsubara, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda, Yoshinori Kumazawa

Abstract

The discovery of differentially organized sex chromosome systems suggests that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of homologous chromosomes. Whereas karyotypes are highly conserved in alethinophidian snakes, the degeneration status of the W chromosomes varies among species. The Z and W chromosomes are morphologically homomorphic in henophidian species, whereas in snakes belonging to caenophidian families the W chromosomes are highly degenerated. Snakes therefore are excellent animal models in which to study sex chromosome evolution. Herein, we investigated the differentiation processes for snake sex chromosomes using both coding and repetitive sequences. We analyzed phylogenetic relationships of CTNNB1 and WAC genes, localized to the centromeric and telomeric regions, respectively, of the long arms on snake sex chromosomes, and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences in several henophidian and caenophidian species. Partial or full-length coding sequences of CTNNB1 and WAC were identified for Z homologs of henophidian species from Tropidophiidae, Boidae, Cylindrophiidae, Xenopeltidae, and Pythonidae, and for Z and W homologs of caenophidian species from Acrochordidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, and Colubridae. Female-specific sequences for the two genes were not found in the henophidian (boid and pythonid) species examined. Phylogenetic trees constructed using each gene showed that the Z and W homologs of the caenophidian species cluster separately. The repetitive sequence isolated from the W chromosome heterochromatin of the colubrid Elaphe quadrivirgata and a microsatellite motif (AGAT)8 were strongly hybridized with W chromosomes of the viperid and colubrid species examined. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the cessation of recombination between the Z and W homologs of CTNNB1 and WAC predated the diversification of the caenophidian families. As the repetitive sequences on the W chromosomes were shared among viperid and colubrid species, heterochromatinization of the proto-W chromosome appears to have occurred before the splitting of these two groups. These results collectively suggest that differentiation of the proto-Z and proto-W chromosomes extended to wide regions on the sex chromosomes in the common ancestor of caenophidian families during a relatively short period.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 6 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 45 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Japan 1 2%
Netherlands 1 2%
Unknown 43 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 12 27%
Researcher 6 13%
Student > Master 6 13%
Student > Bachelor 5 11%
Student > Postgraduate 4 9%
Other 4 9%
Unknown 8 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 17 38%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 31%
Environmental Science 2 4%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 2%
Unspecified 1 2%
Other 2 4%
Unknown 8 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 March 2018.
All research outputs
#13,477,095
of 22,884,315 outputs
Outputs from Zoological Letters
#118
of 168 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#180,890
of 338,621 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Zoological Letters
#4
of 9 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,884,315 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 39th percentile – i.e., 39% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 168 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 13.8. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 338,621 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 9 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 5 of them.