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Functional integration of the circulatory, immune, and respiratory systems in mosquito larvae: pathogen killing in the hemocyte-rich tracheal tufts

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Biology, September 2016
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (59th percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

Mentioned by

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5 tweeters

Citations

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24 Dimensions

Readers on

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44 Mendeley
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Title
Functional integration of the circulatory, immune, and respiratory systems in mosquito larvae: pathogen killing in the hemocyte-rich tracheal tufts
Published in
BMC Biology, September 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12915-016-0305-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Garrett P. League, Julián F. Hillyer

Abstract

As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquito adults have evolved an efficient means of eliminating infections in their hemocoel (body cavity) via the coordinated action of their immune and circulatory systems, the goal of the present study was to determine whether such functional integration is also present in larvae. By fluorescently labeling hemocytes (immune cells), pericardial cells, and the heart, we discovered that fourth instar larvae, unlike adults, contain segmental hemocytes but lack the periostial hemocytes that surround the ostia (heart valves) in abdominal segments 2-7. Instead, larvae contain an abundance of sessile hemocytes at the tracheal tufts, which are respiratory structures that are unique to larvae, are located in the posterior-most abdominal segment, and surround what in larvae are the sole incurrent openings for hemolymph entry into the heart. Injection of fluorescent immune elicitors and bacteria into the larval hemocoel then showed that tracheal tuft hemocytes mount rapid and robust immune responses against foreign insults. Indeed, green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli flowing with the hemolymph rapidly aggregate exclusively at the tracheal tufts, where they are killed within 24 h post-infection via both phagocytosis and melanization. Together, these findings show that the functional integration of the circulatory, respiratory, and immune systems of mosquitoes varies drastically across life stages.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 5 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 44 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 2%
United States 1 2%
Unknown 42 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 9 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 18%
Student > Bachelor 6 14%
Student > Master 4 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 5%
Other 6 14%
Unknown 9 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 21 48%
Immunology and Microbiology 4 9%
Environmental Science 2 5%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 5%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 5%
Other 4 9%
Unknown 9 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 November 2016.
All research outputs
#3,711,537
of 8,696,028 outputs
Outputs from BMC Biology
#658
of 924 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#102,177
of 256,158 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Biology
#21
of 32 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,696,028 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 56th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 924 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 15.7. This one is in the 27th percentile – i.e., 27% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 256,158 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 59% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 32 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 31st percentile – i.e., 31% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.