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The structure and diversity of human, animal and environmental resistomes

Overview of attention for article published in Microbiome, October 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#22 of 1,157)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

36 news outlets
6 blogs
1 policy source
55 tweeters
4 Facebook pages
1 Google+ user
1 Redditor


227 Dimensions

Readers on

536 Mendeley
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The structure and diversity of human, animal and environmental resistomes
Published in
Microbiome, October 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40168-016-0199-5
Pubmed ID

Chandan Pal, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Erik Kristiansson, D. G. Joakim Larsson


Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widespread but cause problems only when present in pathogens. Environments where selection and transmission of antibiotic resistance frequently take place are likely to be characterized by high abundance and diversity of horizontally transferable ARGs. Large-scale quantitative data on ARGs is, however, lacking for most types of environments, including humans and animals, as is data on resistance genes to potential co-selective agents, such as biocides and metals. This paucity prevents efficient identification of risk environments. We provide a comprehensive characterization of resistance genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and bacterial taxonomic compositions for 864 metagenomes from humans (n = 350), animals (n = 145) and external environments (n = 369), all deeply sequenced using Illumina technology. Environment types showed clear differences in both resistance profiles and bacterial community compositions. Human and animal microbial communities were characterized by limited taxonomic diversity and low abundance and diversity of biocide/metal resistance genes and MGEs but a relatively high abundance of ARGs. In contrast, external environments showed consistently high taxonomic diversity which in turn was linked to high diversity of both biocide/metal resistance genes and MGEs. Water, sediment and soil generally carried low relative abundance and few varieties of known ARGs, whereas wastewater/sludge was on par with the human gut. The environments with the largest relative abundance and/or diversity of ARGs, including genes encoding resistance to last resort antibiotics, were those subjected to industrial antibiotic pollution and a limited set of deeply sequenced air samples from a Beijing smog event. Our study identifies air and antibiotic-polluted environments as under-investigated transmission routes and reservoirs for antibiotic resistance. The high taxonomic and genetic diversity of external environments supports the hypothesis that these also form vast sources of unknown resistance genes, with potential to be transferred to pathogens in the future.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 55 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 536 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 <1%
Brazil 2 <1%
Canada 1 <1%
Norway 1 <1%
Sweden 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
New Zealand 1 <1%
Belgium 1 <1%
Estonia 1 <1%
Other 2 <1%
Unknown 522 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 116 22%
Researcher 84 16%
Student > Master 76 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 42 8%
Student > Bachelor 41 8%
Other 89 17%
Unknown 88 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 131 24%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 86 16%
Environmental Science 46 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 39 7%
Medicine and Dentistry 26 5%
Other 84 16%
Unknown 124 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 354. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 August 2020.
All research outputs
of 19,163,209 outputs
Outputs from Microbiome
of 1,157 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 281,379 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Microbiome
of 4 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,163,209 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,157 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 40.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 281,379 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 4 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them