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Sociodemographic factors associated with IgG and IgM seroprevalence for human cytomegalovirus infection in adult populations of Pakistan: a seroprevalence survey

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Public Health, October 2016
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Title
Sociodemographic factors associated with IgG and IgM seroprevalence for human cytomegalovirus infection in adult populations of Pakistan: a seroprevalence survey
Published in
BMC Public Health, October 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3772-8
Pubmed ID
Authors

Saira Ibrahim, Anwar A. Siddiqui, Amna R. Siddiqui, Waquaruddin Ahmed, Paul A. H. Moss, El-Nasir M. A. Lalani

Abstract

The seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection ranges from 30 to 90 % in developed countries. Reliable estimates of HCMV seroprevalence are not available for Pakistan. This study determined the seroprevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with HCMV infection in adult populations of Karachi, Pakistan. A seroprevalence survey was conducted on 1000 adults, including residents of two semi-urban communities, and visitors to a government and a private hospital. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted. Sera were analysed for HCMV-specific IgG and IgM. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for comparing sociodemographic variables against seropositivity of HCMV-IgG or IgM. Multiple logistic regression modeling was performed for IgG seroprevalence and adjusted odds ratios were computed. The seroprevalence of HCMV-IgG and IgM was 93.2 and 4.3 % respectively. 95.3 % of individuals who were IgM seropositive were also seropositive for IgG. Around 6 % (15/250) of women of childbearing age remained uninfected and were therefore susceptible to primary infection. HCMV-IgG seroprevalence was associated with being female (p = 0.001), increasing age (p = 0.002) and crowding index (p = 0.003) and also with lower levels of both education (p < 0.001) and income (p = 0.008). Seroprevalence also differed significantly by marital status (p = 0.008) and sampling location (p < 0.001). A logistic regression model for HCMV-IgG seroprevalence showed associations with being female (OR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.10-3.25), increasing age (OR = 3.95; 95 % CI: 1.79-8.71) and decreasing income (OR = 0.72; 95 % CI: 0.54-0.96). A strong association was observed between increased seroprevalence of HCMV-IgM and decreasing household size (p = 0.008). Seroprevalence of HCMV is very high in Pakistan, although 6 % of women of childbearing age remain at risk of primary infection. The IgM seropositivity observed in some individuals living in small household size (1-3 individuals) with persistent HCMV infection could have resulted from a recurrent HCMV infection. Future longitudinal research in pregnant women and neonates is required to study the trends in HCMV seroprevalence over time in Pakistan for the development of a potential HCMV prevention and vaccination programme.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 38 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 38 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 11 29%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 13%
Student > Postgraduate 3 8%
Student > Bachelor 2 5%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 5%
Other 6 16%
Unknown 9 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 11 29%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 8%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 8%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 5%
Engineering 2 5%
Other 5 13%
Unknown 12 32%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 December 2020.
All research outputs
#15,390,684
of 22,896,955 outputs
Outputs from BMC Public Health
#11,387
of 14,926 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#198,374
of 315,610 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Public Health
#176
of 224 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,896,955 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 22nd percentile – i.e., 22% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 14,926 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 13.9. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 315,610 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 28th percentile – i.e., 28% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 224 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 17th percentile – i.e., 17% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.