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Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound, September 2016
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2 tweeters


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74 Mendeley
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Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system
Published in
Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound, September 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40349-016-0066-7
Pubmed ID

Megan E. Poorman, Vandiver L. Chaplin, Ken Wilkens, Mary D. Dockery, Todd D. Giorgio, William A. Grissom, Charles F. Caskey


MR-guided focused ultrasound or high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS/MRgHIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality with many potential applications in areas such as cancer therapy, drug delivery, and blood-brain barrier opening. However, the large financial costs involved in developing preclinical MRgFUS systems represent a barrier to research groups interested in developing new techniques and applications. We aim to mitigate these challenges by detailing a validated, open-source preclinical MRgFUS system capable of delivering thermal and mechanical FUS in a quantifiable and repeatable manner under real-time MRI guidance. A hardware and software package was developed that includes closed-loop feedback controlled thermometry code and CAD drawings for a therapy table designed for a preclinical MRI scanner. For thermal treatments, the modular software uses a proportional integral derivative controller to maintain a precise focal temperature rise in the target given input from MR phase images obtained concurrently. The software computes the required voltage output and transmits it to a FUS transducer that is embedded in the delivery table within the magnet bore. The delivery table holds the FUS transducer, a small animal and its monitoring equipment, and a transmit/receive RF coil. The transducer is coupled to the animal via a water bath and is translatable in two dimensions from outside the magnet. The transducer is driven by a waveform generator and amplifier controlled by real-time software in Matlab. MR acoustic radiation force imaging is also implemented to confirm the position of the focus for mechanical and thermal treatments. The system was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in vivo during murine tumor hyperthermia treatments. Sonications were successfully controlled over a range of temperatures and thermal doses for up to 20 min with minimal temperature overshoot. MR thermometry was validated with an optical temperature probe, and focus visualization was achieved with acoustic radiation force imaging. We developed an MRgFUS platform for small-animal treatments that robustly delivers accurate, precise, and controllable sonications over extended time periods. This system is an open source and could increase the availability of low-cost small-animal systems to interdisciplinary researchers seeking to develop new MRgFUS applications and technology.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 74 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 74 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 20%
Researcher 12 16%
Professor > Associate Professor 8 11%
Student > Bachelor 5 7%
Professor 5 7%
Other 11 15%
Unknown 18 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 23 31%
Physics and Astronomy 8 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 8%
Neuroscience 3 4%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 3%
Other 8 11%
Unknown 24 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 27 October 2016.
All research outputs
of 8,577,291 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
of 63 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 249,595 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
of 5 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,577,291 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 50th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 63 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.6. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 52% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 249,595 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 5 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 3 of them.