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Insights into the innate immunome of actiniarians using a comparative genomic approach

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Genomics, November 2016
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (80th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (87th percentile)

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11 tweeters
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1 Google+ user
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1 Redditor

Citations

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37 Dimensions

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45 Mendeley
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Title
Insights into the innate immunome of actiniarians using a comparative genomic approach
Published in
BMC Genomics, November 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12864-016-3204-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Chloé A. van der Burg, Peter J. Prentis, Joachim M. Surm, Ana Pavasovic

Abstract

Innate immune genes tend to be highly conserved in metazoans, even in early divergent lineages such as Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, hydroids and sea anemones) and Porifera (sponges). However, constant and diverse selection pressures on the immune system have driven the expansion and diversification of different immune gene families in a lineage-specific manner. To investigate how the innate immune system has evolved in a subset of sea anemone species (Order: Actiniaria), we performed a comprehensive and comparative study using 10 newly sequenced transcriptomes, as well as three publically available transcriptomes, to identify the origins, expansions and contractions of candidate and novel immune gene families. We characterised five conserved genes and gene families, as well as multiple novel innate immune genes, including the newly recognised putative pattern recognition receptor CniFL. Single copies of TLR, MyD88 and NF-κB were found in most species, and several copies of IL-1R-like, NLR and CniFL were found in almost all species. Multiple novel immune genes were identified with domain architectures including the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) homology domain, which is well documented as functioning in protein-protein interactions and signal transduction in immune pathways. We hypothesise that these genes may interact as novel proteins in immune pathways of cnidarian species. Novelty in the actiniarian immunome is not restricted to only TIR-domain-containing proteins, as we identify a subset of NLRs which have undergone neofunctionalisation and contain 3-5 N-terminal transmembrane domains, which have so far only been identified in two anthozoan species. This research has significance in understanding the evolution and origin of the core eumetazoan gene set, including how novel innate immune genes evolve. For example, the evolution of transmembrane domain containing NLRs indicates that these NLRs may be membrane-bound, while all other metazoan and plant NLRs are exclusively cytosolic receptors. This is one example of how species without an adaptive immune system may evolve innovative solutions to detect pathogens or interact with native microbiota. Overall, these results provide an insight into the evolution of the innate immune system, and show that early divergent lineages, such as actiniarians, have a diverse repertoire of conserved and novel innate immune genes.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 11 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 45 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 45 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 12 27%
Researcher 7 16%
Student > Bachelor 7 16%
Student > Master 4 9%
Student > Postgraduate 2 4%
Other 5 11%
Unknown 8 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 16 36%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 20%
Environmental Science 3 7%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 7%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 4%
Other 3 7%
Unknown 9 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 10. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 November 2018.
All research outputs
#2,547,009
of 18,242,827 outputs
Outputs from BMC Genomics
#1,088
of 9,557 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#58,599
of 302,466 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Genomics
#115
of 877 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,242,827 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 86th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 9,557 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.4. This one has done well, scoring higher than 88% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 302,466 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 80% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 877 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its contemporaries.