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Genotoxicity assessment of 4-methylimidazole: regulatory perspectives

Overview of attention for article published in Genes and Environment, November 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#32 of 101)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (51st percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

Mentioned by

twitter
3 tweeters

Citations

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17 Dimensions

Readers on

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8 Mendeley
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Title
Genotoxicity assessment of 4-methylimidazole: regulatory perspectives
Published in
Genes and Environment, November 2016
DOI 10.1186/s41021-016-0050-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Takeshi Morita, Chikako Uneyama

Abstract

4-Methylimidazole (4-MI) is formed as a result of the Maillard reaction process, and therefore is found in many foods and beverages. It is also found in soft drinks (i.e., cola) as a by-product in the production of some caramel colors. NTP bioassays revealed clear evidence of lung carcinogenicity of 4-MI in male and female mice, but not in rats and then IARC classified 4-MI as group 2B carcinogen. Genotoxicity studies with 4-MI were negative in the Ames tests and in the erythrocyte micronucleus tests with mice or rats. US California EPA (CEPA) evaluated the testing has not been adequately comprehensive to rule out a genotoxic mode of action; as target tissue of the carcinogenicity of 4-MI was lung, the lung should be used as a source tissue for in vitro metabolic activation system. Thus, CEPA defined the No Significant Risk Level (NSRL) for 10(-5) lifetime risk level of cancer by 4-MI as 29 μg/day based on the non-threshold approach. As higher levels of 4-MI than the NSRL were identified in some kinds of cola, health concerns of 4-MI were drawn the attention. On the other hand, other regulatory bodies (e.g., European Food Safety Authority, EFSA) showed no concerns of 4-MI from the use of caramel colors in food. EFSA evaluated 4-MI is not genotoxic, so, non-observed adverse effect level of 4-MI was considered to be 80 mg/kg/day. In this paper, genotoxic assessments of 4-MI in different regulatory bodies are presented and the risk evaluation of 4-MI is discussed based on new genotoxicity data.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 8 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 8 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 3 38%
Other 1 13%
Student > Master 1 13%
Unknown 3 38%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 25%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 13%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 13%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 1 13%
Unknown 3 38%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 May 2022.
All research outputs
#12,275,522
of 21,385,220 outputs
Outputs from Genes and Environment
#32
of 101 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#151,768
of 315,418 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Genes and Environment
#9
of 16 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,385,220 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 101 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.6. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 68% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 315,418 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 51% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 16 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.