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Insufficient natural killer cell responses against retroviruses: how to improve NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells

Overview of attention for article published in Retrovirology, November 2016
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (53rd percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

Mentioned by

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3 tweeters

Citations

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13 Dimensions

Readers on

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25 Mendeley
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Title
Insufficient natural killer cell responses against retroviruses: how to improve NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells
Published in
Retrovirology, November 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12977-016-0311-8
Pubmed ID
Authors

Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Ulf Dittmer, Kathrin Sutter

Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and inhibitory receptors on their cell surface and often become activated after recognizing virus-infected cells. They have diverse antiviral effector functions like the release of cytotoxic granules, cytokine production and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The importance of NK cell activity in retroviral infections became evident due to the discovery of several viral strategies to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells. Mutational sequence polymorphisms as well as modulation of surface receptors and their ligands are mechanisms of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 to evade NK cell-mediated immune pressure. In Friend retrovirus infected mice the virus can manipulate molecular or cellular immune factors that in turn suppress the NK cell response. In this model NK cells lack cytokines for optimal activation and can be functionally suppressed by regulatory T cells. However, these inhibitory pathways can be overcome therapeutically to achieve full activation of NK cell responses and ultimately control dissemination of retroviral infection. One effective approach is to modulate the crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells, which produce NK cell-stimulating cytokines like type I interferons (IFN), IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 upon retrovirus sensing or infection. Therapeutic administration of IFNα directly increases NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells. In addition, IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes that direct IL-2 to NK cells have been shown to significantly improve control of retroviral infection by NK cells in vivo. In this review, we describe novel approaches to improve NK cell effector functions in retroviral infections. Immunotherapies that target NK cells of patients suffering from viral infections might be a promising treatment option for the future.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 25 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 4%
Unknown 24 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 20%
Student > Bachelor 5 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 16%
Other 2 8%
Lecturer 1 4%
Other 1 4%
Unknown 7 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 16%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 8%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 4%
Chemical Engineering 1 4%
Other 5 20%
Unknown 7 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 03 August 2017.
All research outputs
#7,391,999
of 13,119,389 outputs
Outputs from Retrovirology
#425
of 787 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#166,513
of 373,908 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Retrovirology
#44
of 88 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,119,389 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 787 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.7. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 373,908 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 88 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 40th percentile – i.e., 40% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.