↓ Skip to main content

From egg to “no-body”: an overview and revision of developmental pathways in the ancient arthropod lineage Pycnogonida

Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Zoology, February 2017
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (90th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
10 tweeters
3 Wikipedia pages


28 Dimensions

Readers on

38 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
From egg to “no-body”: an overview and revision of developmental pathways in the ancient arthropod lineage Pycnogonida
Published in
Frontiers in Zoology, February 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12983-017-0192-2
Pubmed ID

Georg Brenneis, Ekaterina V. Bogomolova, Claudia P. Arango, Franz Krapp


Arthropod diversity is unparalleled in the animal kingdom. The study of ontogeny is pivotal to understand which developmental processes underlie the incredible morphological disparity of arthropods and thus to eventually unravel evolutionary transformations leading to their success. Work on laboratory model organisms has yielded in-depth data on numerous developmental mechanisms in arthropods. Yet, although the range of studied taxa has increased noticeably since the advent of comparative evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), several smaller groups remain understudied. This includes the bizarre Pycnogonida (sea spiders) or "no-bodies", a taxon occupying a crucial phylogenetic position for the interpretation of arthropod development and evolution. Pycnogonid development is variable at familial and generic levels and sometimes even congeneric species exhibit different developmental modes. Here, we summarize the available data since the late 19(th) century. We clarify and resolve terminological issues persisting in the pycnogonid literature and distinguish five developmental pathways, based on (1) type of the hatching stage, (2) developmental-morphological features during postembryonic development and (3) selected life history characteristics. Based on phylogenetic analyses and the fossil record, we discuss plausible plesiomorphic features of pycnogonid development that allow comparison to other arthropods. These features include (1) a holoblastic, irregular cleavage with equal-sized blastomeres, (2) initiation of gastrulation by a single bottle-shaped cell, (3) the lack of a morphologically distinct germ band during embryogenesis, (4) a parasitic free-living protonymphon larva as hatching stage and (5) a hemianamorphic development during the postlarval and juvenile phases. Further, we propose evolutionary developmental trajectories within crown-group Pycnogonida. A resurgence of studies on pycnogonid postembryonic development has provided various new insights in the last decades. However, the scarcity of modern-day embryonic data - including the virtual lack of gene expression and functional studies - needs to be addressed in future investigations to strengthen comparisons to other arthropods and arthropod outgroups in the framework of evo-devo. Our review may serve as a basis for an informed choice of target species for such studies, which will not only shed light on chelicerate development and evolution but furthermore hold the potential to contribute important insights into the anamorphic development of the arthropod ancestor.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 10 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 38 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 38 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 9 24%
Researcher 6 16%
Student > Bachelor 5 13%
Professor 4 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 11%
Other 4 11%
Unknown 6 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 19 50%
Environmental Science 4 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 11%
Engineering 1 3%
Unknown 10 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 18. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 May 2022.
All research outputs
of 21,775,893 outputs
Outputs from Frontiers in Zoology
of 638 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 393,611 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Zoology
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,775,893 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 92nd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 638 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.9. This one has done well, scoring higher than 82% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 393,611 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them