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A primer on the use of mouse models for identifying direct sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues

Overview of attention for article published in Biology of Sex Differences, December 2016
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Title
A primer on the use of mouse models for identifying direct sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues
Published in
Biology of Sex Differences, December 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13293-016-0115-5
Pubmed ID
Authors

Paul S. Burgoyne, Arthur P. Arnold

Abstract

In animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, all sex differences originate from the sex chromosomes, which are the only factors that are consistently different in male and female zygotes. In mammals, the imbalance in Y gene expression, specifically the presence vs. absence of Sry, initiates the differentiation of testes in males, setting up lifelong sex differences in the level of gonadal hormones, which in turn cause many sex differences in the phenotype of non-gonadal tissues. The inherent imbalance in the expression of X and Y genes, or in the epigenetic impact of X and Y chromosomes, also has the potential to contribute directly to the sexual differentiation of non-gonadal cells. Here, we review the research strategies to identify the X and Y genes or chromosomal regions that cause direct, sexually differentiating effects on non-gonadal cells. Some mouse models are useful for separating the effects of sex chromosomes from those of gonadal hormones. Once direct "sex chromosome effects" are detected in these models, further studies are required to narrow down the list of candidate X and/or Y genes and then to identify the sexually differentiating genes themselves. Logical approaches to the search for these genes are reviewed here.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 57 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 2%
Unknown 56 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 18 32%
Researcher 6 11%
Student > Master 6 11%
Professor > Associate Professor 5 9%
Student > Bachelor 5 9%
Other 12 21%
Unknown 5 9%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 16 28%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 13 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 12%
Neuroscience 7 12%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 2%
Other 4 7%
Unknown 9 16%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 08 February 2017.
All research outputs
#7,829,003
of 9,031,451 outputs
Outputs from Biology of Sex Differences
#147
of 163 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#256,438
of 309,864 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Biology of Sex Differences
#6
of 6 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,031,451 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 163 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 11.7. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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