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Partial HIV C2V3 envelope sequence analysis reveals association of coreceptor tropism, envelope glycosylation and viral genotypic variability among Kenyan patients on HAART

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, February 2017
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2 tweeters

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19 Mendeley
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Title
Partial HIV C2V3 envelope sequence analysis reveals association of coreceptor tropism, envelope glycosylation and viral genotypic variability among Kenyan patients on HAART
Published in
Virology Journal, February 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12985-017-0703-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Rose C. Kitawi, Carol W. Hunja, Rashid Aman, Bernhards R. Ogutu, Anne W. T. Muigai, Gilbert O. Kokwaro, Washingtone Ochieng

Abstract

HIV-1 is highly variable genetically and at protein level, a property it uses to subvert antiviral immunity and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess if HIV subtype differences were associated with variations in glycosylation patterns and co-receptor tropism among HAART patients experiencing different virologic treatment outcomes. A total of 118 HIV env C2V3 sequence isolates generated previously from 59 Kenyan patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were examined for tropism and glycosylation patterns. For analysis of Potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs), amino acid sequences generated by the NCBI's Translate tool were applied to the HIVAlign and the N-glycosite tool within the Los Alamos Database. Viral tropism was assessed using Geno2Pheno (G2P), WebPSSM and Phenoseq platforms as well as using Raymond's and Esbjörnsson's rules. Chi square test was used to determine independent variables association and ANOVA applied on scale variables. At respective False Positive Rate (FPR) cut-offs of 5% (p = 0.045), 10% (p = 0.016) and 20% (p = 0.005) for CXCR4 usage within the Geno2Pheno platform, HIV-1 subtype and viral tropism were significantly associated in a chi square test. Raymond's rule (p = 0.024) and WebPSSM (p = 0.05), but not Phenoseq or Esbjörnsson showed significant associations between subtype and tropism. Relative to other platforms used, Raymond's and Esbjörnsson's rules showed higher proportions of X4 variants, while WebPSSM resulted in lower proportions of X4 variants across subtypes. The mean glycosylation density differed significantly between subtypes at positions, N277 (p = 0.034), N296 (p = 0.036), N302 (p = 0.034) and N366 (p = 0.004), with HIV-1D most heavily glycosylated of the subtypes. R5 isolates had fewer PNGs than X4 isolates, but these differences were not significant except at position N262 (p = 0.040). Cell-associated isolates from virologic treatment success subjects were more glycosylated than cell-free isolates from virologic treatment failures both for the NXT (p = 0.016), and for all the patterns (p = 0.011). These data reveal significant associations of HIV-1 subtype diversity, viral co-receptor tropism, viral suppression and envelope glycosylation. These associations have important implications for designing therapy and vaccines against HIV. Heavy glycosylation and preference for CXCR4 usage of HIV-1D may explain rapid disease progression in patients infected with these strains.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 19 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 19 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 4 21%
Researcher 3 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 16%
Other 1 5%
Lecturer 1 5%
Other 1 5%
Unknown 6 32%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 32%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 11%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 11%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 5%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 5%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 7 37%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 February 2017.
All research outputs
#4,601,423
of 9,093,370 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#952
of 1,788 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#134,641
of 255,146 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#33
of 62 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,093,370 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,788 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.5. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 255,146 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 46th percentile – i.e., 46% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 62 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.