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Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Overview of attention for article published in Molecular Autism, March 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#38 of 614)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (96th percentile)

Mentioned by

blogs
2 blogs
twitter
100 tweeters
facebook
10 Facebook pages
video
2 video uploaders

Citations

dimensions_citation
291 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
793 Mendeley
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Title
Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Published in
Molecular Autism, March 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13229-017-0121-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg

Abstract

According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD. On the contrary, advanced parental age is associated with higher risk of ASD. Birth complications that are associated with trauma or ischemia and hypoxia have also shown strong links to ASD, whereas other pregnancy-related factors such as maternal obesity, maternal diabetes, and caesarian section have shown a less strong (but significant) association with risk of ASD. The reviews on nutritional elements have been inconclusive about the detrimental effects of deficiency in folic acid and omega 3, but vitamin D seems to be deficient in patients with ASD. The studies on toxic elements have been largely limited by their design, but there is enough evidence for the association between some heavy metals (most important inorganic mercury and lead) and ASD that warrants further investigation. Mechanisms of the association between environmental factors and ASD are debated but might include non-causative association (including confounding), gene-related effect, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, endocrine disruption, neurotransmitter alterations, and interference with signaling pathways. Compared to genetic studies of ASD, studies of environmental risk factors are in their infancy and have significant methodological limitations. Future studies of ASD risk factors would benefit from a developmental psychopathology approach, prospective design, precise exposure measurement, reliable timing of exposure in relation to critical developmental periods and should take into account the dynamic interplay between gene and environment by using genetically informed designs.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 100 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 793 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Russia 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Unknown 791 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 148 19%
Student > Bachelor 127 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 110 14%
Researcher 83 10%
Student > Postgraduate 48 6%
Other 132 17%
Unknown 145 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 167 21%
Psychology 101 13%
Neuroscience 80 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 65 8%
Nursing and Health Professions 55 7%
Other 139 18%
Unknown 186 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 77. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 August 2021.
All research outputs
#368,236
of 19,156,856 outputs
Outputs from Molecular Autism
#38
of 614 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#11,511
of 319,033 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Molecular Autism
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,156,856 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 614 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 28.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 319,033 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them