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Therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of nearly 1,000 drugs and other xenobiotics

Overview of attention for article published in Critical Care, January 2012
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (97th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
15 tweeters


521 Dimensions

Readers on

371 Mendeley
1 CiteULike
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Therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations of nearly 1,000 drugs and other xenobiotics
Published in
Critical Care, January 2012
DOI 10.1186/cc11441
Pubmed ID

Martin Schulz, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Hilke Andresen, Achim Schmoldt


ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: In order to assess the significance of drug levels measured in intensive care medicine, clinical and forensic toxicology, as well as for therapeutic drug monitoring, it is essential that a comprehensive collection of data is readily available. Therefore, it makes sense to offer a carefully referenced compilation of therapeutic and toxic plasma concentration ranges, as well as half-lives, of a large number of drugs and other xenobiotics for quick and comprehensive information. METHODS: Data have been abstracted from original papers and text books, as well as from previous compilations, and have been completed with data collected in our own forensic and clinical toxicology laboratory. The data presented in the table and corresponding annotations have been developed over the past 20 years and longer. A previous compilation has been completely revised and updated. In addition, more than 170 substances, especially drugs that have been introduced to the market since 2003 as well as illegal drugs, which became known to cause intoxications, were added. All data were carefully referenced and more than 200 new references were included. Moreover, the annotations providing details were completely revised and more than 100 annotations were added. RESULTS: For nearly 1,000 drugs and other xenobiotics, therapeutic ("normal") and, if data were available, toxic and comatose-fatal blood-plasma concentrations and elimination half-lives were compiled in a table. CONCLUSIONS: In case of intoxications, the concentration of the ingested substances and/or metabolites in blood plasma better predicts the clinical severity of the case when compared to the assumed amount and time of ingestion. Comparing and contrasting the clinical case against the data provided, including the half-life, may support the decision for or against further intensive care. In addition, the data provided are useful for the therapeutic monitoring of pharmacotherapies, to facilitate the diagnostic assessment and monitoring of acute and chronic intoxications, and to support forensic and clinical expert opinions.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 15 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 371 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 2 <1%
France 2 <1%
Switzerland 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
South Africa 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Belgium 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 360 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 65 18%
Researcher 60 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 59 16%
Student > Bachelor 43 12%
Other 25 7%
Other 64 17%
Unknown 55 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 84 23%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 55 15%
Chemistry 50 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 48 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 26 7%
Other 39 11%
Unknown 69 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 18. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 January 2022.
All research outputs
of 21,869,744 outputs
Outputs from Critical Care
of 5,890 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 208,912 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Critical Care
of 35 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,869,744 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 92nd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,890 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 18.9. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 74% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 208,912 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 35 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.