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Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, November 2013
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (83rd percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (87th percentile)

Mentioned by

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8 tweeters
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6 Facebook pages

Citations

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40 Dimensions

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91 Mendeley
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Title
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14
Published in
Virology Journal, November 2013
DOI 10.1186/1743-422x-10-344
Pubmed ID
Authors

Marcos G Godoy, Molly JT Kibenge, Rudy Suarez, Eduardo Lazo, Alejandro Heisinger, Javier Aguinaga, Diego Bravo, Julio Mendoza, Katerina O Llegues, Rubén Avendaño-Herrera, Cristian Vera, Fernando Mardones, Frederick SB Kibenge

Abstract

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA outbreaks, as it is considered a risk factor. This is the first report of ISA linked directly to the presence of ISAV-HPR0, and provides strong evidence supporting the contention that ISAV-HPR0 shows a strong relationship to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ viruses and the possibility that it could mutate to virulent ISAV-HPR∆.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 8 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 91 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Chile 1 1%
United States 1 1%
Canada 1 1%
Unknown 88 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 23 25%
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 15%
Student > Master 10 11%
Student > Bachelor 9 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 7 8%
Other 13 14%
Unknown 15 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 35 38%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 13 14%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 11%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 5%
Environmental Science 3 3%
Other 5 5%
Unknown 20 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 8. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 February 2015.
All research outputs
#3,735,789
of 21,356,145 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#358
of 2,905 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#48,695
of 303,552 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#40
of 301 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,356,145 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 82nd percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,905 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.8. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 303,552 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 301 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its contemporaries.