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A comparative molecular and 3-dimensional structural investigation into cross-continental and novel avian Trypanosoma spp. in Australia

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, May 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (72nd percentile)

Mentioned by

10 tweeters
1 Facebook page


7 Dimensions

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26 Mendeley
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A comparative molecular and 3-dimensional structural investigation into cross-continental and novel avian Trypanosoma spp. in Australia
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, May 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2173-x
Pubmed ID

Crystal Cooper, R. C. Andrew Thompson, Adriana Botero, Amanda Kristancic, Christopher Peacock, Yaowanuj Kirilak, Peta L. Clode


Molecular and structural information on avian Trypanosoma spp. throughout Australia is limited despite their intrinsic value in understanding trypanosomatid evolution, diversity, and structural biology. In Western Australia tissue samples (n = 429) extracted from 93 birds in 25 bird species were screened using generic PCR primers to investigate the diversity of Trypanosoma spp. To investigate avian trypanosome structural biology the first 3-dimensional ultrastructural models of a Trypanosoma spp. (Trypanosoma sp. AAT) isolated from a bird (currawong, Strepera spp.) were generated using focussed ion beam milling combined with scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Here, we confirm four intercontinental species of avian trypanosomes in native Australian birds, and identify a new avian Trypanosoma. Trypanosome infection was identified in 18 birds from 13 different bird species (19%). A single new genotype was isolated and found to be closely related to T. culicavium (Trypanosoma sp. CC2016 B002). Other Trypanosoma spp. identified include T. avium, T. culicavium, T. thomasbancrofti, Trypanosoma sp. TL.AQ.22, Trypanosoma sp. AAT, and an uncharacterised Trypanosoma sp. (group C-III sensu Zidková et al. (Infect Genet Evol 12:102-112, 2012)), all previously identified in Australia or other continents. Serially-sectioning Trypanosoma sp. AAT epimastigotes using FIB-SEM revealed the disc-shaped kinetoplast pocket attached perpendicular to the branching mitochondrion. Additionally, the universal minicircle sequence within the kinetoplast DNA and the associated binding protein were determined in Trypanosoma sp. AAT. These results indicate that bird trypanosomes are relatively conserved across continents, while being locally diverse, which supports the hypothesis that bird trypanosomes exist as fewer species than described in the literature. Evidence exists that avian Trypanosoma spp. are infecting mammals and could be transmitted by haemadipsid leeches. Trypanosoma sp. AAT is most likely a separate species currently found only in Australia and the first 3-dimentional ultrastructural analysis of an avian trypanosome provides interesting information on their morphology and organelle arrangement.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 10 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 26 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 26 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 6 23%
Researcher 4 15%
Student > Bachelor 3 12%
Other 2 8%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 8%
Other 3 12%
Unknown 6 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 23%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 19%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 8%
Environmental Science 1 4%
Unspecified 1 4%
Other 2 8%
Unknown 9 35%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 6. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 August 2018.
All research outputs
of 15,265,309 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
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Outputs of similar age
of 266,838 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
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Altmetric has tracked 15,265,309 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 75th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 4,110 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.6. This one has done well, scoring higher than 81% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 266,838 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 72% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them