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Strategies and hurdles using DNA vaccines to fish

Overview of attention for article published in Veterinary Research, February 2014
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Title
Strategies and hurdles using DNA vaccines to fish
Published in
Veterinary Research, February 2014
DOI 10.1186/1297-9716-45-21
Pubmed ID
Authors

Linn B Hølvold, Anne I Myhr, Roy A Dalmo

Abstract

DNA vaccinations against fish viral diseases as IHNV at commercial level in Canada against VHSV at experimental level are both success stories. DNA vaccination strategies against many other viral diseases have, however, not yet yielded sufficient results in terms of protection. There is an obvious need to combat many other viral diseases within aquaculture where inactivated vaccines fail. There are many explanations to why DNA vaccine strategies against other viral diseases fail to induce protective immune responses in fish. These obstacles include: 1) too low immunogenicity of the transgene, 2) too low expression of the transgene that is supposed to induce protection, 3) suboptimal immune responses, and 4) too high degradation rate of the delivered plasmid DNA. There are also uncertainties with regard distribution and degradation of DNA vaccines that may have implications for safety and regulatory requirements that need to be clarified. By combining plasmid DNA with different kind of adjuvants one can increase the immunogenicity of the transgene antigen - and perhaps increase the vaccine efficacy. By using molecular adjuvants with or without in combination with targeting assemblies one may expect different responses compared with naked DNA. This includes targeting of DNA vaccines to antigen presenting cells as a central factor in improving their potencies and efficacies by means of encapsulating the DNA vaccine in certain carriers systems that may increase transgene and MHC expression. This review will focus on DNA vaccine delivery, by the use of biodegradable PLGA particles as vehicles for plasmid DNA mainly in fish.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 159 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
South Africa 2 1%
Norway 1 <1%
India 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
Unknown 153 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 29 18%
Researcher 28 18%
Student > Master 27 17%
Student > Bachelor 16 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 10 6%
Other 27 17%
Unknown 22 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 64 40%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 23 14%
Immunology and Microbiology 12 8%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 9 6%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 3%
Other 11 7%
Unknown 35 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 February 2014.
All research outputs
#3,061,448
of 4,507,509 outputs
Outputs from Veterinary Research
#301
of 417 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#75,044
of 111,658 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Veterinary Research
#18
of 24 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 4,507,509 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 417 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.6. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 111,658 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 24 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 12th percentile – i.e., 12% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.