Previous studies regarding the cardioprotective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have not provided sufficient evidence of a relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and actual cardiovascular outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of DPP-4 inhibitors on the survival of diabetic patients after first acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
This was a nationwide, propensity score-matched, case-control study of 186,112 first AMI patients, 72,924 of whom had diabetes. A propensity score, one-to-one matching technique was used to match 2672 controls to 2672 patients in the DPP-4 inhibitor group for analysis. Controls were matched based on gender, age, and a history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, end-stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and percutaneous coronary intervention.
DPP-4 inhibitors improve the overall 3-year survival rate (log rank P < 0.0001), whether male or female. Cox proportional hazard regression showed DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial in diabetes patients after AMI (HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.78-0.95), especially in those patients with hypertension (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.97; P = 0.0103) and cerebrovascular disease (HR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.97; P = 0.018), but without dyslipidemia (HR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.92; P = 0.0029), without peripheral vascular disease (HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.78-0.96; P = 0.0047), without heart failure (HR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.73-0.96; P = 0.0106), without end stage renal disease (HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.95; P = 0.0035), and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.97; P = 0.0096).
DPP-4 inhibitor therapy improved long-term survival in diabetic patients after first AMI, regardless of gender.