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Formula diet driven microbiota shifts tryptophan metabolism from serotonin to tryptamine in neonatal porcine colon

Overview of attention for article published in Microbiome, July 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (89th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 blog
23 tweeters
3 Facebook pages


48 Dimensions

Readers on

111 Mendeley
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Formula diet driven microbiota shifts tryptophan metabolism from serotonin to tryptamine in neonatal porcine colon
Published in
Microbiome, July 2017
DOI 10.1186/s40168-017-0297-z
Pubmed ID

Manish Kumar Saraf, Brian D. Piccolo, Anne K. Bowlin, Kelly E. Mercer, Tanya LeRoith, Sree V. Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, Thomas M. Badger, Laxmi Yeruva


The gut microbiota of breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ significantly, as do the risks for allergies, gut dysfunction, and upper respiratory tract infections. The connections between breast milk, various formulas, and the profiles of gut bacteria to these childhood illnesses, as well as the mechanisms underlying the effects, are not well understood. We investigated distal colon microbiota by 16S RNA amplicon sequencing, morphology by histomorphometry, immune response by cytokine expression, and tryptophan metabolism in a pig model in which piglets were sow-fed, or fed soy or dairy milk-based formula from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 21. Formula feeding significantly (p < 0.05) altered the colon microbiota relative to the sow feeding. A significant reduction in microbial diversity was noted with formula groups in comparison to sow-fed. Streptococcus, Blautia, Citrobacter, Butrycimonas, Parabacteroides, Lactococcus genera were increased with formula feeding relative to sow feeding. In addition, relative to sow feeding, Anaerotruncus, Akkermansia, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Christensenella, and Holdemania were increased in milk-fed piglets, and Biliophila, Ruminococcus, Clostridium were increased in soy-fed piglets. No significant gut morphological changes were noted. However, higher cytokine mRNA expression (BMP4, CCL11, CCL21) was observed in the distal colon of formula groups. Formula feeding reduced enterochromaffin cell number and serotonin, but increased tryptamine levels relative to sow feeding. Our data confirm that formula diet alters the colon microbiota and appears to shift tryptophan metabolism from serotonin to tryptamine, which may lead to greater histamine levels and risk of allergies in infants.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 23 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 111 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 111 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 25 23%
Student > Ph. D. Student 20 18%
Student > Master 13 12%
Student > Doctoral Student 9 8%
Student > Bachelor 7 6%
Other 16 14%
Unknown 21 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 22 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 10%
Immunology and Microbiology 9 8%
Medicine and Dentistry 8 7%
Neuroscience 7 6%
Other 22 20%
Unknown 32 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 21. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 January 2018.
All research outputs
of 16,625,112 outputs
Outputs from Microbiome
of 963 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 269,460 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Microbiome
of 3 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 16,625,112 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 963 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 39.7. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 59% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 269,460 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 89% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 3 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.