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Hepatitis a virus genotypes and strains from an endemic area of Europe, Bulgaria 2012–2014

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, July 2017
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Title
Hepatitis a virus genotypes and strains from an endemic area of Europe, Bulgaria 2012–2014
Published in
BMC Infectious Diseases, July 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12879-017-2596-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Eleonora Cella, Alessandra Lo Presti, Angela Costantino, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Elitsa Golkocheva-Markova, Diljana Bankova, Massimo Ciccozzi, Pavel Teoharov, Anna Rita Ciccaglione

Abstract

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is endemic in Eastern European and Balkan region countries. In 2012, Bulgaria showed the highest rate (67.13 cases per 100,000) in Europe. Nevertheless, HAV genotypes and strains circulating in this country have never been described. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HAV from 105 patients from Bulgaria. Anti-HAV IgM positive serum samples collected in 2012-2014 from different towns and villages in Bulgaria were analysed by nested RT-PCR, sequencing of the VP1/2A region and phylogenetic analysis; the results were analysed together with patient and geographical data. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two main sequence groups corresponding to the IA (78/105, 74%) and IB (27/105, 26%) sub-genotypes. In the IA group, a major and a minor cluster were observed (62 and 16 sequences, respectively). Most sequences from the major cluster (44/62, 71%) belonged to either of two strains, termed "strain 1" and "strain 2", differing only for a single specific nucleotide; the remaining sequences (18/62, 29%) showed few (1 to 4) nucleotide variations respect to strain 1 and 2. Strain 2 is identical to the strain previously responsible for an outbreak in the Czech Republic in 2008 and a large multi-country European outbreak caused by contaminated mixed frozen berries in 2013. Most sequences of the IA minor cluster and the IB group were detected in large/medium centers (LMCs). Overall, sequences from the IA major cluster were more frequent in small centers (SCs), but strain 1 and strain 2 showed an opposite relative frequency in SCs and LMCs (strain 1 more frequent in SCs, strain 2 in LMCs). Genotype IA predominated in Bulgaria in 2012-2014 and phylogenetic analysis identified a major cluster of highly related or identical IA sequences, representing 59% of the analysed cases; these isolates were mostly detected in SCs, in which HAV shows higher endemicity than in LMCs. The distribution of viral sequences suggests the existence of some differences between the transmission routes in SCs and LMCs. Molecular characterization of an increased number of isolates from Bulgaria, regularly collected over time, will be useful to explore specific transmission routes and plan appropriate preventing measures.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Mexico 1 3%
Unknown 29 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 6 20%
Student > Master 6 20%
Other 3 10%
Student > Bachelor 3 10%
Student > Postgraduate 3 10%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 7 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 6 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 13%
Immunology and Microbiology 4 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 10%
Environmental Science 2 7%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 9 30%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 July 2017.
All research outputs
#20,434,884
of 22,988,380 outputs
Outputs from BMC Infectious Diseases
#6,515
of 7,717 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#272,401
of 312,506 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Infectious Diseases
#156
of 188 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,988,380 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 188 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.