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The oncogenic role of the In1-ghrelin splicing variant in prostate cancer aggressiveness

Overview of attention for article published in Molecular Cancer, August 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#18 of 1,372)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (92nd percentile)

Mentioned by

3 news outlets
5 tweeters
1 patent
1 Google+ user


34 Dimensions

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29 Mendeley
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The oncogenic role of the In1-ghrelin splicing variant in prostate cancer aggressiveness
Published in
Molecular Cancer, August 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12943-017-0713-9
Pubmed ID

Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Manuel D. Gahete, Juan M. Jiménez-Vacas, Enrique Gómez-Gómez, Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, Fernando L-López, Esther Rivero-Cortés, André Sarmento-Cabral, José Valero-Rosa, Julia Carrasco-Valiente, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Rosa Ortega-Salas, María M. Moreno, Natia Tsomaia, Steve M. Swanson, Michael D. Culler, María J. Requena, Justo P. Castaño, Raúl M. Luque


The Ghrelin-system is a complex, pleiotropic family composed of several peptides, including native-ghrelin and its In1-ghrelin splicing variant, and receptors (GHSR 1a/b), which are dysregulated in various endocrine-related tumors, where they associate to pathophysiological features, but the presence, functional role, and mechanisms of actions of In1-ghrelin splicing variant in prostate-cancer (PCa), is completely unexplored. Herein, we aimed to determine the presence of key ghrelin-system components (native-ghrelin, In1-ghrelin, GHSR1a/1b) and their potential pathophysiological role in prostate cancer (PCa). In1-ghrelin and native-ghrelin expression was evaluated by qPCR in prostate tissues from patients with high PCa-risk (n = 52; fresh-tumoral biopsies), and healthy-prostates (n = 12; from cystoprostatectomies) and correlated with clinical parameters using Spearman-test. In addition, In1-ghrelin and native-ghrelin was measured in plasma from an additional cohort of PCa-patients with different risk levels (n = 30) and control-healthy patients (n = 20). In vivo functional (proliferation/migration) and mechanistic (gene expression/signaling-pathways) assays were performed in PCa-cell lines in response to In1-ghrelin and native-ghrelin treatment, overexpression and/or silencing. Finally, tumor progression was monitored in nude-mice injected with PCa-cells overexpressing In1-ghrelin, native-ghrelin and empty vector (control). In1-ghrelin, but not native-ghrelin, was overexpressed in high-risk PCa-samples compared to normal-prostate (NP), and this expression correlated with that of PSA. Conversely, GHSR1a/1b expression was virtually absent. Remarkably, plasmatic In1-ghrelin, but not native-ghrelin, levels were also higher in PCa-patients compared to healthy-controls. Furthermore, In1-ghrelin treatment/overexpression, and to a much lesser extent native-ghrelin, increased aggressiveness features (cell-proliferation, migration and PSA secretion) of NP and PCa cells. Consistently, nude-mice injected with PC-3-cells stably-transfected with In1-ghrelin, but not native-ghrelin, presented larger tumors. These effects were likely mediated by ERK1/2-signaling activation and involved altered expression of key oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes. Finally, In1-ghrelin silencing reduced cell-proliferation and PSA secretion from PCa cells. Altogether, our results indicate that In1-ghrelin levels (in tissue) and circulating levels (in plasma) are increased in PCa where it can regulate key pathophysiological processes, thus suggesting that In1-ghrelin may represent a novel biomarker and a new therapeutic target in PCa.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 5 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 29 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 5 17%
Researcher 3 10%
Professor 3 10%
Professor > Associate Professor 3 10%
Student > Master 3 10%
Other 5 17%
Unknown 7 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 31%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 3%
Immunology and Microbiology 1 3%
Computer Science 1 3%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 13 45%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 33. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 June 2018.
All research outputs
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Outputs from Molecular Cancer
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Molecular Cancer
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Altmetric has tracked 17,365,229 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,372 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 277,919 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them