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Insecticide use pattern and phenotypic susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to commonly used insecticides in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Research Notes, September 2017
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Title
Insecticide use pattern and phenotypic susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to commonly used insecticides in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania
Published in
BMC Research Notes, September 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13104-017-2793-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Elinas J. Nnko, Charles Kihamia, Filemoni Tenu, Zul Premji, Eliningaya J. Kweka

Abstract

Evidence of insecticide resistance has been documented in different malaria endemic areas. Surveillance studies to allow prompt investigation of associated factors to enable effective insecticide resistance management are needed. The objective of this study was to assess insecticide use pattern and phenotypic susceptibility level of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to insecticides commonly used in malaria control in Moshi, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess insecticide usage pattern. Data was collected was through closed and open ended questionnaires The WHO diagnostic standard kit with doses of 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 4% DDT were used to detect knockdown time, mortality and resistance ratio of wild A. gambiae sensu lato. The questionnaire survey data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance while susceptibility data was analysed by logistic regression with probit analysis using SPSS program. The WHO criteria was used to evaluate the resistance status of the tested mosquito populations. A large proportion of respondents (80.8%) reported to have used insecticide mainly for farming purposes (77.3%). Moreover, 93.3% of household reported usage of long lasting insecticidal nets. The frequently used class of insecticide was organophosphate with chloropyrifos as the main active ingredients and dursban was the brand constantly reported. Very few respondents (24.1%) applied integrated vector control approaches of and this significantly associated with level of knowledge of insecticide use (P < 0.001). Overall knockdown time for A. gambiae s.l was highest in DDT, followed by Pyrethroids (Permethrin and deltamethrin) and lowest in bendiocarb. Anopheles gambiae s.l showed susceptibility to bendiocarb, increased tolerance to permethrin and resistant to deltamethrin. The most effective insecticide against the population from tested was bendiocarb, with a resistance ratio ranging between 0.93-2.81. Education on integrated vector management should be instituted and a policy change on insecticide of choice for malaria vector control from pyrethroids to carbamates (bendiocarb) is recommended. Furthermore, studies to detect cross resistance between pyrethroids and organophosphates should be carried out.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 48 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 48 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 8 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 13%
Lecturer > Senior Lecturer 4 8%
Student > Postgraduate 4 8%
Researcher 3 6%
Other 7 15%
Unknown 16 33%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 15%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 15%
Social Sciences 3 6%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 4%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 4%
Other 10 21%
Unknown 17 35%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 08 September 2017.
All research outputs
#9,375,536
of 11,729,435 outputs
Outputs from BMC Research Notes
#1,785
of 2,582 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#193,498
of 264,174 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Research Notes
#31
of 42 outputs
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