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Effects of obesity on bone metabolism

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, January 2011
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Mentioned by

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1 tweeter
reddit
1 Redditor
video
1 video uploader

Citations

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412 Dimensions

Readers on

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452 Mendeley
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Title
Effects of obesity on bone metabolism
Published in
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, January 2011
DOI 10.1186/1749-799x-6-30
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jay J Cao

Abstract

Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely affects health. The rates of obesity rates have doubled since 1980 and as of 2007, 33% of men and 35% of women in the US are obese. Obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers. It is estimated that the direct medical cost associated with obesity in the United States is ~$100 billion per year.Bone mass and strength decrease during adulthood, especially in women after menopause. These changes can culminate in osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration resulting in increased bone fracture risk. It is estimated that there are about 10 million Americans over the age of 50 who have osteoporosis while another 34 million people are at risk of developing the disease. In 2001, osteoporosis alone accounted for some $17 billion in direct annual healthcare expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that obesity and bone metabolism are interrelated. First, both osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and adipocytes (energy storing cells) are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell and agents inhibiting adipogenesis stimulated osteoblast differentiation and vice versa, those inhibiting osteoblastogenesis increased adipogenesis. Second, decreased bone marrow osteoblastogenesis with aging is usually accompanied with increased marrow adipogenesis. Third, chronic use of steroid hormone, such as glucocorticoid, results in obesity accompanied by rapid bone loss. Fourth, both obesity and osteoporosis are associated with elevated oxidative stress and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. At present, the mechanisms for the effects of obesity on bone metabolism are not well defined and will be the focus of this review.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 452 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 4 <1%
United States 3 <1%
Spain 2 <1%
Colombia 2 <1%
India 2 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Australia 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Chile 1 <1%
Other 4 <1%
Unknown 431 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 75 17%
Student > Bachelor 75 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 74 16%
Researcher 42 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 41 9%
Other 98 22%
Unknown 47 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 141 31%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 87 19%
Nursing and Health Professions 32 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 29 6%
Engineering 15 3%
Other 67 15%
Unknown 81 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 March 2021.
All research outputs
#10,848,698
of 18,057,469 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
#402
of 1,104 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#99,472
of 208,149 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,057,469 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,104 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.9. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 57% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 208,149 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them