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Using blood cytokine measures to define high inflammatory biotype of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, September 2017
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Title
Using blood cytokine measures to define high inflammatory biotype of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, September 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12974-017-0962-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Danny Boerrigter, Thomas W. Weickert, Rhoshel Lenroot, Maryanne O’Donnell, Cherrie Galletly, Dennis Liu, Martin Burgess, Roxanne Cadiz, Isabella Jacomb, Vibeke S. Catts, Stu G. Fillman, Cynthia Shannon Weickert

Abstract

Increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in the brain and blood of people with schizophrenia. However, increased cytokines are not evident in all people with schizophrenia, but are found in a subset. The cytokine changes that best define this subset, termed the "elevated inflammatory biotype", are still being identified. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we measured five cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18) from peripheral blood of healthy controls and of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 165). We used a cluster analysis of the transcript levels to define those with low and those with elevated levels of cytokine expression. From the same cohort, eight cytokine proteins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) were measured in serum and plasma using a Luminex Magpix-based assay. We compared peripheral mRNA and protein levels across diagnostic groups and between those with low and elevated levels of cytokine expression according to our transcription-based cluster analysis. We found an overall decrease in the anti-inflammatory IL-2 mRNA (p = 0.006) and an increase in three serum cytokines, IL-6 (p = 0.010), IL-8 (p = 0.024) and TNFα (p < 0.001) in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. A greater percentage of people with schizophrenia (48%) were categorised into the elevated inflammatory biotype compared to healthy controls (33%). The magnitude of increase in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNAs in people in the elevated inflammation biotype ranged from 100 to 220% of those in the non-elevated inflammatory biotype and was comparable between control and schizophrenia groups. Blood cytokine protein levels did not correlate with cytokine mRNA levels, and plasma levels of only two cytokines distinguished the elevated and low inflammatory biotypes, with IL-1β significantly increased in the elevated cytokine control group and IL-8 significantly increased in the elevated cytokine schizophrenia group. Our results confirm that individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to have elevated levels of inflammation compared to controls. We suggest that efforts to define inflammatory status based on peripheral measures need to consider both mRNA and protein measures as each have distinct advantages and disadvantages and can yield different results.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 116 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 116 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 22 19%
Student > Master 18 16%
Researcher 15 13%
Student > Bachelor 10 9%
Professor > Associate Professor 7 6%
Other 23 20%
Unknown 21 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 19 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 19 16%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 9%
Psychology 11 9%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 5%
Other 18 16%
Unknown 32 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 20 September 2017.
All research outputs
#10,460,648
of 11,799,674 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#1,145
of 1,349 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#226,218
of 267,674 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#11
of 14 outputs
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