We report a female patient with endocrine abnormalities, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and amazia (breasts aplasia/hypoplasia but normal nipples and areolas) in a rare syndrome: Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS).
Our patient was first evaluated at age 4 for intellectual disability, craniofacial features, and auditory malformations. At age 15, she presented with no breast development and other findings consistent with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. At age 37, she underwent whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify pathogenic variants. WES revealed compound heterozygous variants in DCHS1 (rs145099391:G > A, p.P197L & rs753548138:G > A, p.T2334 M) [RefSeq NM_003737.3], diagnostic of Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS-1). VMS is a rare autosomal disorder reported in only 13 patients, characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations, hearing loss, skeletal and limb malformations, brain abnormalities with periventricular neuronal heterotopia and other variable anomalies. Our patient had similar phenotypic abnormalities. She also had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and amazia. Based on the clinical findings reported, two previously published patients with VMS may also have been affected by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but endocrine abnormalities were not evaluated or mentioned.
This case highlights an individual with VMS, characterized by compound heterozygous variants in DCHS1. Our observations may provide additional information on the phenotypic spectrum of VMS, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and amazia. However, the molecular genetic basis for endocrine anomalies observed in some VMS patients, including ours, remains unexplained.