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What does not kill it makes it weaker: effects of sub-lethal concentrations of ivermectin on the locomotor activity of Anopheles aquasalis

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, December 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (62nd percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (70th percentile)

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4 tweeters
1 Facebook page


11 Dimensions

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51 Mendeley
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What does not kill it makes it weaker: effects of sub-lethal concentrations of ivermectin on the locomotor activity of Anopheles aquasalis
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, December 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2563-0
Pubmed ID

Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Kevin Kobylinski, Yudi Tatiana Pinilla, Paulo Filemon Paolluci Pimenta, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro


Malaria remains a major public health concern. Vector control measures based solely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have demonstrated not to be feasible for malaria elimination. It has been shown that ivermectin affects several aspects of Anopheles species biology. Along the Latin American seacoast, Anopheles aquasalis Curry plays an important role in malaria transmission. The observation of mosquitoes locomotor activity under laboratory conditions can reveal details of their daily activity rhythms, which is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock that seems to be influenced by external signals, such as light and temperature. In this study, we assessed basal locomotor activity and the effects of ivermectin on locomotor activity of the American malaria vector, An. aquasalis. Adult females of Anopheles aquasalis used in experiments were three to five days post-emergence. Blood from one single subject was used to provide mosquito meals by membrane feeding assays. Powdered ivermectin compound was used to achieve different concentrations of drug as previously described. Fully engorged mosquitoes were individually placed into glass tubes and provided with 10% sucrose. Each tube was placed into a Locomotor Activity Monitor (LAM). The LAMs were kept inside an incubator under a constant temperature and a 12:12 h light:dark cycle. The average locomotor activity was calculated as the mean number of movements performed per mosquito in the period considered. Intervals of time assessed were adapted from a previous study. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to compare means between groups. Additionally, Dunnett's method was used for post-hoc pairwise means comparisons between each group and control. Stata software version 13 was used for the analysis. Anopheles aquasalis showed a nocturnal and bimodal pattern for mosquitoes fed both control blood meals and sub-lethal concentrations of ivermectin. In this species, activity peaks occurred at the beginning of the photophase and scotophase in the control group. The nocturnal activity is evident and higher just after the evening peak and maintains basal levels of locomotion throughout the scotophase. In the entire group analysis, locomotor activity means of experimental sets were significantly lower than control for each period of time evaluated. In the survival group, the locomotor activity means of all treatment sets were lower than control mosquitoes for all intervals of time when both the whole period and scotophase were assessed. When the middle of scotophase was evaluated, means were significantly lower for LC15 and LC25, but not LC5. For the beginning of photophase period, significant differences were detected only between control and LC5. When both the photophase and scotophase were assessed alone, no significant differences were found. Mean locomotor activity was significantly lower for dead group when compared to survival group for all experimental sets when whole period, photophase, and scotophase were assessed. Ivermectin seems to decrease locomotor activity of An. aquasalis at sub-lethal concentrations. The effects on locomotor activity increase according at higher ivermectin concentrations and are most evident during the whole scotophase as well as in the beginning and in the end of this phase, and sub-lethal effects may still be observed in the photophase. Findings presented in this study demonstrate that sub-lethal ivermectin effects reduce mosquito locomotor activity, which could diminish vectorial capacity and therefore the malaria transmission.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 51 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 51 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 22%
Researcher 10 20%
Student > Master 9 18%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 6%
Other 2 4%
Other 8 16%
Unknown 8 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 16 31%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 14%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 14%
Unspecified 2 4%
Computer Science 2 4%
Other 7 14%
Unknown 10 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 January 2018.
All research outputs
of 13,785,324 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
of 3,678 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 392,281 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
of 556 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,785,324 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,678 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 67% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 392,281 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 62% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 556 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 70% of its contemporaries.