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Population genetic structure of the Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) complex, vectors of West Nile virus, in five habitats

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, January 2018
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (63rd percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (72nd percentile)

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Title
Population genetic structure of the Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) complex, vectors of West Nile virus, in five habitats
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, January 2018
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2594-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Andrea L. Joyce, Etienne Melese, Phuong-Thao Ha, Allan Inman

Abstract

The Culex pipiens complex consists of several morphologically similar, closely related species. In the United States, Cx. pipiens L. is distributed North of 39° latitude, while Cx. quinquefasciatus Say occurs South of 36° latitude; a hybrid zone occurs between these two latitudes including in the Central Valley of California. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their hybrids are vectors for West Nile virus (WNv). Hybrid offspring of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus have been found to have enhanced transmission rates of WNv over those of pure populations of each species. We investigated whether hybrids of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus occurred more frequently in any of five habitats which were dairies, rural, suburban, and urban areas, and wetlands. In addition, the proportion of alleles unique to Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens found in each habitat-associated population were determined. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to compare the population structure of the Cx. pipiens complex from each habitat to geographically distant populations considered pure Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Structure analyses were used to assign individuals to either Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, or hybrids of the Cx. pipiens complex. The ancestry of hybrids (F1, F2, or backcrossed) in relation to the two parent populations was estimated for each Central Valley population. Loci unique to the pure Cx. pipiens population and the pure Cx. quinquefasciatus population were determined. The proportion of loci unique to Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus populations were subsequently determined for each population from the five Merced habitats and from the Oroville California population. The unique loci found in Merced populations and not in Cx. pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus were also determined. A principal components analysis was run, as was an analysis to determine loci under putative selection. The Structure Harvester analysis found K = 3, and the Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes formed a genetic cluster distinct from Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. Individuals collected from each habitat were nearly all hybrids. However, Cx. pipiens complex collected near dairies had more individuals categorized as Cx. pipiens than collections from the other habitats. None of the mosquitoes collected in Merced or Oroville were considered pure Cx. quinquefasciatus. Significant genetic divergence was detected among the Cx. pipiens complex from the five habitats in Merced; Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes from dairies were divergent from the urban and suburban populations. New Hybrids analysis found that individuals from all five Merced habitat-associated populations and the population from Oroville were primarily categorized as hybrids backcrossed to the Cx. pipiens population. Finally, all five habitat-associated populations shared more alleles with Cx. pipiens than with Cx. quinquefasciatus, even though the pure Cx. quinquefasciatus population was more geographically proximate to Merced. Results from the principal component analysis, and the occurrence of several unique loci in Merced populations, suggest that Cx. pipiens molestus may also occur in the habitats sampled. Nearly all mosquitoes in the five habitats in Merced in the Central Valley of California area were hybrids of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus, consisting of hybrids backcrossed to Cx. pipiens. Habitat-associated mosquitoes collected near dairies had more individuals consisting of pure Cx. pipiens, and no mosquitoes from Merced or Oroville CA classified as pure Cx. quinquefasciatus. The genetic distances among Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and hybrid populations agree with previous studies using other molecular markers. Cx. pipiens hybrids in Merced shared more alleles with Cx. pipiens than Cx. quinquefasciatus which was unexpected, since Merced is geographically closer to the northern limit of Cx. quinquefasciatus distribution. Culex pipiens molestus may occur in more habitats in the Central Valley than previously suspected, which warrants further investigation. Future studies could investigate the vector competence of hybrids backcrossed to either Cx. pipiens or Cx. quinquefasciatus parent for their ability to transmit West Nile virus.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 53 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 53 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Doctoral Student 8 15%
Student > Master 8 15%
Researcher 8 15%
Student > Bachelor 7 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 11%
Other 5 9%
Unknown 11 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 18 34%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 15%
Environmental Science 6 11%
Arts and Humanities 2 4%
Engineering 2 4%
Other 3 6%
Unknown 14 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 January 2018.
All research outputs
#6,258,949
of 12,372,610 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#972
of 3,151 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#127,799
of 352,755 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#50
of 189 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,372,610 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,151 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.4. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 68% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 352,755 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 63% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 189 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 72% of its contemporaries.