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In silico comparative analysis of GGDEF and EAL domain signaling proteins from the Azospirillum genomes

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, March 2018
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In silico comparative analysis of GGDEF and EAL domain signaling proteins from the Azospirillum genomes
Published in
BMC Microbiology, March 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12866-018-1157-0
Pubmed ID

Alberto Ramírez Mata, César Millán Pacheco, José F. Cruz Pérez, Martha Minjárez Sáenz, Beatriz E. Baca


The cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) second messenger exemplifies a signaling system that regulates many bacterial behaviors of key importance; among them, c-di-GMP controls the transition between motile and sessile life-styles in bacteria. Cellular c-di-GMP levels in bacteria are regulated by the opposite enzymatic activities of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are proteins that have GGDEF and EAL domains, respectively. Azospirillum is a genus of plant-growth-promoting bacteria, and members of this genus have beneficial effects in many agronomically and ecologically essential plants. These bacteria also inhabit aquatic ecosystems, and have been isolated from humus-reducing habitats. Bioinformatic and structural approaches were used to identify genes predicted to encode GG[D/E]EF, EAL and GG[D/E]EF-EAL domain proteins from nine genome sequences. The analyzed sequences revealed that the genomes of A. humicireducens SgZ-5T, A. lipoferum 4B, Azospirillum sp. B510, A. thiophilum BV-ST, A. halopraeferens DSM3675, A. oryzae A2P, and A. brasilense Sp7, Sp245 and Az39 encode for 29 to 41 of these predicted proteins. Notably, only 15 proteins were conserved in all nine genomes: eight GGDEF, three EAL and four GGDEF-EAL hybrid domain proteins, all of which corresponded to core genes in the genomes. The predicted proteins exhibited variable lengths, architectures and sensor domains. In addition, the predicted cellular localizations showed that some of the proteins to contain transmembrane domains, suggesting that these proteins are anchored to the membrane. Therefore, as reported in other soil bacteria, the Azospirillum genomes encode a large number of proteins that are likely involved in c-di-GMP metabolism. In addition, the data obtained here strongly suggest host specificity and environment specific adaptation. Bacteria of the Azospirillum genus cope with diverse environmental conditions to survive in soil and aquatic habitats and, in certain cases, to colonize and benefit their host plant. Gaining information on the structures of proteins involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Azospirillum appears to be an important step in determining the c-di-GMP signaling pathways, involved in the transition of a motile cell towards a biofilm life-style, as an example of microbial genome plasticity under diverse in situ environments.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 30 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 17%
Researcher 5 17%
Student > Master 5 17%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 13%
Student > Bachelor 3 10%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 6 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 12 40%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 30%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 10%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 3%
Unknown 5 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 11 March 2018.
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Altmetric has tracked 12,627,642 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,860 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.8. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 55% of its peers.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them