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Identification of novel MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements) in Coxiella burnetii: implications for protein and small RNA evolution

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Genomics, April 2018
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Title
Identification of novel MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements) in Coxiella burnetii: implications for protein and small RNA evolution
Published in
BMC Genomics, April 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12864-018-4608-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Shaun Wachter, Rahul Raghavan, Jenny Wachter, Michael F. Minnick

Abstract

Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium and zoonotic agent of Q fever. C. burnetii's genome contains an abundance of pseudogenes and numerous selfish genetic elements. MITEs (miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements) are non-autonomous transposons that occur in all domains of life and are thought to be insertion sequences (ISs) that have lost their transposase function. Like most transposable elements (TEs), MITEs are thought to play an active role in evolution by altering gene function and expression through insertion and deletion activities. However, information regarding bacterial MITEs is limited. We describe two MITE families discovered during research on small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) of C. burnetii. Two sRNAs, Cbsr3 and Cbsr13, were found to originate from a novel MITE family, termed QMITE1. Another sRNA, CbsR16, was found to originate from a separate and novel MITE family, termed QMITE2. Members of each family occur ~ 50 times within the strains evaluated. QMITE1 is a typical MITE of 300-400 bp with short (2-3 nt) direct repeats (DRs) of variable sequence and is often found overlapping annotated open reading frames (ORFs). Additionally, QMITE1 elements possess sigma-70 promoters and are transcriptionally active at several loci, potentially influencing expression of nearby genes. QMITE2 is smaller (150-190 bps), but has longer (7-11 nt) DRs of variable sequences and is mainly found in the 3' untranslated region of annotated ORFs and intergenic regions. QMITE2 contains a GTAG repetitive extragenic palindrome (REP) that serves as a target for IS1111 TE insertion. Both QMITE1 and QMITE2 display inter-strain linkage and sequence conservation, suggesting that they are adaptive and existed before divergence of C. burnetii strains. We have discovered two novel MITE families of C. burnetii. Our finding that MITEs serve as a source for sRNAs is novel. QMITE2 has a unique structure and occurs in large or small versions with unique DRs that display linkage and sequence conservation between strains, allowing for tracking of genomic rearrangements. QMITE1 and QMITE2 copies are hypothesized to influence expression of neighboring genes involved in DNA repair and virulence through transcriptional interference and ribonuclease processing.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 36 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 36 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 11 31%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 17%
Unspecified 5 14%
Student > Bachelor 3 8%
Student > Master 3 8%
Other 2 6%
Unknown 6 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 12 33%
Unspecified 5 14%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 11%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 3 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 6%
Other 3 8%
Unknown 7 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 April 2018.
All research outputs
#7,384,572
of 12,802,184 outputs
Outputs from BMC Genomics
#3,994
of 7,526 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#141,150
of 274,051 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Genomics
#8
of 23 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,802,184 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 40th percentile – i.e., 40% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 7,526 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.3. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 274,051 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 23 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 60% of its contemporaries.