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A review of 40 years of enteric antimicrobial resistance research in Eastern Africa: what can be done better?

Overview of attention for article published in Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, January 2015
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 policy source
10 tweeters
1 Facebook page


68 Dimensions

Readers on

355 Mendeley
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A review of 40 years of enteric antimicrobial resistance research in Eastern Africa: what can be done better?
Published in
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, January 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13756-014-0041-4
Pubmed ID

Sylvia Omulo, Samuel M Thumbi, M Kariuki Njenga, Douglas R Call


The emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance is driven by varied factors including the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and variable drug efficacy and presents a major threat to the control of infectious diseases. Despite the high burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential health and economic consequences, the level of research on antimicrobial resistance in the region remains unknown. Little data exists to quantify the contribution of different factors to the current levels of antimicrobial resistance. To identify the factors that contribute most to the emergence, amplification, persistence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, we used the PRISMA 2009 guidelines to conduct a systematic review of studies on antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria in Eastern Africa. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases and identified 2,155 probable articles, of which 89 studies on humans and 28 on animals remained after full-text review. These were articles from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Burundi, published between 1974 and 2013, that reported resistance in Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. The majority (98%) of human studies were based on hospital- (rather than community-wide) sampling and although they report high levels of antimicrobial resistance in the region, study design and methodological differences preclude conclusions about the magnitude and trends of antimicrobial resistance. To remedy this, we discuss and propose minimum reporting guidelines for the level of detail that should be explicitly provided for antimicrobial resistance study designs, testing of samples and reporting of results that would permit comparative inferences and enable meta-analyses. Further, we advocate for increased focus on community- rather than hospital-based sampling to provide a better indication of population-wide trends in antimicrobial resistance. This approach, together with the establishment of a robust regional surveillance network, should over time build a pool of evidence-based data useful for policy decisions and interventions aimed at controlling antimicrobial resistance.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 10 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 355 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Kenya 2 <1%
Mozambique 1 <1%
Tanzania, United Republic of 1 <1%
South Africa 1 <1%
Unknown 350 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 76 21%
Student > Ph. D. Student 54 15%
Researcher 41 12%
Student > Bachelor 38 11%
Student > Postgraduate 28 8%
Other 46 13%
Unknown 72 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 67 19%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 60 17%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 28 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 25 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 18 5%
Other 73 21%
Unknown 84 24%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 10. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 January 2021.
All research outputs
of 19,862,278 outputs
Outputs from Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
of 1,116 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 227,274 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,862,278 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 86th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,116 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 16.1. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 64% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 227,274 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them