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Antigenicity and immunogenicity of PvRALP1, a novel Plasmodium vivax rhoptry neck protein

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, April 2015
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Antigenicity and immunogenicity of PvRALP1, a novel Plasmodium vivax rhoptry neck protein
Published in
Malaria Journal, April 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0698-z
Pubmed ID

Yang Cheng, Jian Li, Daisuke Ito, Deok-Hoon Kong, Kwon-Soo Ha, Feng Lu, Bo Wang, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Chae Seung Lim, Takafumi Tsuboi, Eun-Taek Han


Proteins secreted from the rhoptry in Plasmodium merozoites are associated with the formation of tight junctions and parasitophorous vacuoles during invasion of erythrocytes and are sorted within the rhoptry neck or bulb. Very little information has been obtained to date about Plasmodium vivax rhoptry-associated leucine (Leu) zipper-like protein 1 (PvRALP1; PVX_096245), a putative rhoptry protein. PvRALP1 contains a signal peptide, a glycine (Gly)/glutamate (Glu)-rich domain, and a Leu-rich domain, all of which are conserved in other Plasmodium species. Recombinant PvRALP1s were expressed as full-length protein without the signal peptide (PvRALP1-Ecto) and as truncated protein consisting of the Gly/Glu- and Leu-rich domains (PvRALP1-Tr) using the wheat germ cell-free expression system. The immunoreactivity to these two fragments of recombinant PvRALP1 protein in serum samples from P. vivax-infected patients and immunized mice, including analysis of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or protein microarray technology. The subcellular localization of PvRALP1 in blood stage parasites was also determined. Recombinant PvRALP1-Ecto and PvRALP1-Tr proteins were successfully expressed, and in serum samples from P. vivax patients from the Republic of Korea, the observed immunoreactivities to these proteins had 58.9% and 55.4% sensitivity and 95.0% and 92.5% specificity, respectively. The response to PvRALP1 in humans was predominantly cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3), but a balanced Th1/Th2 response was observed in mice. Unexpectedly, there was no significant inverse correlation between levels of parasitaemia and levels of antibody against either PvRALP1-Ecto (R (2) = 0.11) or PvRALP1-Tr (R (2) = 0.14) antigens. PvRALP1 was localized in the rhoptry neck of merozoites, and this was the first demonstration of the localization of this protein in P. vivax. This study analysed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of PvRALP1 and suggested that PvRALP1 may be immunogenic in humans during parasite infection and might play an important role during invasion of P. vivax parasites.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
South Africa 1 3%
Unknown 29 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 6 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 10%
Researcher 3 10%
Student > Master 3 10%
Other 6 20%
Unknown 5 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 20%
Immunology and Microbiology 4 13%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 3%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 3%
Other 3 10%
Unknown 8 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 February 2016.
All research outputs
of 19,211,930 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 5,074 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 240,156 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,211,930 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,074 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.2. This one is in the 14th percentile – i.e., 14% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 240,156 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 34th percentile – i.e., 34% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them