Hyperuricemia can lead to gout, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events, hypertension, diabetes and renal disease. There is well-known link between gout and habitual intake of meat and seafood, however the association between hyperuricemia and micro-and macro-nutrient intake has not been established.
We studied associations between intakes of food categories, macro-and micronutrients and serum uric acid (SUA) levels in two cross-sectional surveys of Caucasian adults deriving from different food traditions: Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study 1999/00 (n=9734, age 25-91) and Tromsø Study 4 1994/95 (n = 3032, age 25-69). Dietary intake was calculated from self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaires. In some analyses we stratified according to abdominal obesity status and gender.
In both cohorts, lower levels of SUA were found in subjects with higher consumption of carbohydrates, calcium and vitamin B2, while higher fat intake was associated with higher SUA, after adjustment for age, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, total energy intake, use of diuretics, presence of hypertension, diabetes and gout. Among individual food items, high consumption of dairy products, high-fibre bread, cereals and fruits were associated with lower SUA in most subject groups while consumption of meat, eggs, beer and spirits, but not wine, with elevated levels.
Healthy food choices with high intake of carbohydrates, dairy products, fiber and micronutrient-rich foods, and limited intake of fat, beer and spirits, might be recommended to prevent high SUA. Dietary factors seem to have qualitatively similar impact on SUA in obese and non-obese men and women from Australia and Norway.