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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-mediated neuroinflammation dysregulates neurogranin and induces synaptodendritic injury

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, April 2018
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Title
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-mediated neuroinflammation dysregulates neurogranin and induces synaptodendritic injury
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, April 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12974-018-1160-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Debjani Guha, Marc C. E. Wagner, Velpandi Ayyavoo

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common outcome of a majority of HIV-1-infected subjects and is associated with synaptodendritic damage. Neurogranin (Ng), a postsynaptic protein, and calmodulin (CaM) are two important players of synaptic integrity/functions. The biological role of Ng in the context of HAND is unknown. We compared the expression of Ng in frontal cortex (FC) tissues from control and HIV-1-positive subjects with and without HAND by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR. The interaction between Ng and CaM was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. Ng, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), CaM, CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), CREB, synaptophysin (Syp), and synapsin I (Syn I) expressions were evaluated by western blot using FC tissue lysates and differentiated SH-SY5Y (dSH-SY5Y) cells. Identification of inflammatory factors related to Ng loss was accomplished by exposing dSH-SY5Y cells to HIV-1 and mock-infected monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) supernatants or HIV-1 NLYU2 pseudotyped with VSV-G-Env. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, MCP-2, and CXCL5 in MDM supernatants were measured by ELISA. Association of IL-1β and IL-8 to Ng expression in context of HIV-1 infection was evaluated in the presence or absence of neutralizing antibodies against these cytokines. Expression level of Ng was reduced significantly in FC of HAND-positive (HAND+) patients compared to uninfected individuals. Although no difference was found in CaM expression, interaction between Ng and CaM was reduced in HAND+ patients, which was associated with decreased level of CaMKII, a downstream signaling molecule of CaM pathway. This in turn resulted in reduction of synaptic markers, Syp and Syn I. HIV-1 infection directly had no considerable effect on dysregulation of Ng expression in dSH-SY5Y cells, whereas high amount of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and IL-8 in HIV-1-infected MDM supernatants was associated with significant reduction in Ng expression. Synaptic damage in HAND+ patients could be a result of abrogation of Ng through HIV-1-induced inflammation that dysregulates Ng-CaM interaction and downstream signaling cascades associated with synaptodendritic functions. This is the first study evaluating the potential role of Ng in the context of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 27 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 27 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 19%
Student > Bachelor 3 11%
Researcher 2 7%
Student > Master 2 7%
Professor 1 4%
Other 3 11%
Unknown 11 41%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 3 11%
Neuroscience 3 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 11%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 2 7%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 1 4%
Other 3 11%
Unknown 12 44%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 April 2018.
All research outputs
#11,446,440
of 12,875,491 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#1,268
of 1,491 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#234,172
of 268,949 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#20
of 25 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,875,491 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,491 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.0. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,949 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 25 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.