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The heart of a dragon: 3D anatomical reconstruction of the ‘scaly-foot gastropod’ (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neomphalina) reveals its extraordinary circulatory system

Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Zoology, June 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#32 of 611)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (97th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
blogs
1 blog
twitter
64 tweeters
facebook
3 Facebook pages
wikipedia
5 Wikipedia pages
video
1 video uploader

Citations

dimensions_citation
20 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
54 Mendeley
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Title
The heart of a dragon: 3D anatomical reconstruction of the ‘scaly-foot gastropod’ (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neomphalina) reveals its extraordinary circulatory system
Published in
Frontiers in Zoology, June 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12983-015-0105-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Chong Chen, Jonathan T. Copley, Katrin Linse, Alex D. Rogers, Julia D. Sigwart

Abstract

The 'scaly-foot gastropod' (Chrysomallon squamiferum Chen et al., 2015) from deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems of the Indian Ocean is an active mobile gastropod occurring in locally high densities, and it is distinctive for the dermal scales covering the exterior surface of its foot. These iron-sulfide coated sclerites, and its nutritional dependence on endosymbiotic bacteria, are both noted as adaptations to the extreme environment in the flow of hydrogen sulfide. We present evidence for other adaptations of the 'scaly-foot gastropod' to life in an extreme environment, investigated through dissection and 3D tomographic reconstruction of the internal anatomy. Our anatomical investigations of juvenile and adult specimens reveal a large unganglionated nervous system, a simple and reduced digestive system, and that the animal is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. We show that Chrysomallon squamiferum relies on endosymbiotic bacteria throughout post-larval life. Of particular interest is the circulatory system: Chrysomallon has a very large ctenidium supported by extensive blood sinuses filled with haemocoel. The ctenidium provides oxygen for the host but the circulatory system is enlarged beyond the scope of other similar vent gastropods. At the posterior of the ctenidium is a remarkably large and well-developed heart. Based on the volume of the auricle and ventricle, the heart complex represents approximately 4 % of the body volume. This proportionally giant heart primarily sucks blood through the ctenidium and supplies the highly vascularised oesophageal gland. Thus we infer the elaborate cardiovascular system most likely evolved to oxygenate the endosymbionts in an oxygen poor environment and/or to supply hydrogen sulfide to the endosymbionts. This study exemplifies how understanding the autecology of an organism can be enhanced by detailed investigation of internal anatomy. This gastropod is a large and active species that is abundant in its hydrothermal vent field ecosystem. Yet all of its remarkable features-protective dermal sclerites, circulatory system, high fecundity-can be viewed as adaptations beneficial to its endosymbiont microbes. We interpret these results to show that, as a result of specialisation to resolve energetic needs in an extreme chemosynthetic environment, this dramatic dragon-like species has become a carrying vessel for its bacteria.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 64 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 54 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 2%
Spain 1 2%
Unknown 52 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 19%
Student > Master 9 17%
Researcher 9 17%
Student > Bachelor 7 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 9%
Other 7 13%
Unknown 7 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 19 35%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 11%
Earth and Planetary Sciences 6 11%
Environmental Science 5 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 4%
Other 5 9%
Unknown 11 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 63. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 June 2020.
All research outputs
#456,920
of 19,096,926 outputs
Outputs from Frontiers in Zoology
#32
of 611 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#6,397
of 242,990 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Zoology
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,096,926 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 611 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.5. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 94% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 242,990 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them