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Toll signals regulate dorsal–ventral patterning and anterior–posterior placement of the embryo in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus

Overview of attention for article published in EvoDevo, October 2014
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Title
Toll signals regulate dorsal–ventral patterning and anterior–posterior placement of the embryo in the hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus
Published in
EvoDevo, October 2014
DOI 10.1186/2041-9139-5-38
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mateus Berni, Marcio Ribeiro Fontenele, Vitoria Tobias-Santos, Aline Caceres-Rodrigues, Flavia Borges Mury, Raquel Vionette-do-Amaral, Hatisaburo Masuda, Marcos Sorgine, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca, Helena Araujo

Abstract

Insect embryonic dorso-ventral patterning depends greatly on two pathways: the Toll pathway and the Bone Morphogenetic Protein pathway. While the relative contribution of each pathway has been investigated in holometabolous insects, their role has not been explored in insects with a hemimetabolous type of development. The hemimetabolous insect Rhodnius prolixus, an important vector of Chagas disease in the Americas, develops from an intermediate germ band and displays complex movements during katatrepsis that are not observed in other orders. However, little is known about the molecular events that regulate its embryogenesis. Here we investigate the expression and function of genes potentially involved in the initial patterning events that establish the embryonic dorso-ventral axis in this hemipteran. We establish a staging system for early embryogenesis that allows us to correlate embryo morphology with gene expression profiles. Using this system, we investigate the role of Toll pathway genes during embryogenesis. Detailed analyses of gene expression throughout development, coupled with functional analyses using parental RNA interference, revealed that maternal Toll is required to establish germ layers along the dorso-ventral axis and for embryo placement along the anterior-posterior axis. Interestingly, knockdown of the Toll pathway effector Rp-dorsal appears to regulate the expression of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein antagonist Rp-short-gastrulation. Our results indicate that Toll signals are the initiating event in dorso-ventral patterning during Rhodnius embryogenesis, and this is the first report of a conserved role for Toll in a hemipteran. Furthermore, as Rp-dorsal RNA interference generates anteriorly misplaced embryos, our results indicate a novel role for Toll signals in establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in Rhodnius.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 46 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 2%
Unknown 45 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 7 15%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 13%
Student > Bachelor 6 13%
Researcher 5 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 11%
Other 5 11%
Unknown 12 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 17 37%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 20%
Unspecified 2 4%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 2%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 2%
Other 2 4%
Unknown 14 30%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 July 2015.
All research outputs
#14,818,555
of 22,817,213 outputs
Outputs from EvoDevo
#250
of 318 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#143,879
of 260,365 outputs
Outputs of similar age from EvoDevo
#4
of 8 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,817,213 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 318 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 9.4. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 260,365 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 8 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 4 of them.