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Microscopic and molecular evidence of the presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in an area with low, seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in Ethiopia

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, August 2015
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3 tweeters

Citations

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46 Dimensions

Readers on

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131 Mendeley
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Title
Microscopic and molecular evidence of the presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in an area with low, seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in Ethiopia
Published in
BMC Infectious Diseases, August 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12879-015-1070-1
Pubmed ID
Authors

Lemu Golassa, Frederick N. Baliraine, Nizar Enweji, Berhanu Erko, Göte Swedberg, Abraham Aseffa

Abstract

The presence of asymptomatic infections has serious implications for malaria elimination campaigns. Since asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for their infection and may become gametocyte carriers, they undoubtedly contribute to the persistence of malaria transmission in a population. The presence of asymptomatic parasitemias was noted in areas with seasonal malaria transmission. In Ethiopia there is a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria carriage. This study was undertaken to assess the presence and prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in south-central Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 1094 apparently healthy individuals ≥ 2 years of age in south-central Oromia, Ethiopia, an area with seasonal and unstable malaria transmission, were screened for the presence of asymptomatic plasmodial infections. Finger-prick blood samples were taken from each participant for blood film preparation for microscopy and the rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Blood samples were also spotted on Whatman 3MM filter paper for parasite DNA extraction. The prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriage (P. falciparum, P. vivax and mixed species) was 5.0 % (55/1,094) as determined by microscopy, while the prevalence as determined using RDT was 8.2 % (90/1,094). PCR was done on 47 of 55 microscopy-confirmed and on 79 of 90 RDT-confirmed samples. PCR detected parasite DNA in 89.4 % (42/47) of the microscopy-positive samples and in 77.2 % (61/79) of the RDT-positive samples. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum or P. vivax infections in the study area (P > 0.1). However, the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia was significantly associated with gender (OR = 0.47, P = 0.015; being higher in males than females) and age (X(2) = 25, P < 0.001; being higher in younger than in older individuals). Age and parasite densities had an inverse relationship. This study confirms the presence of asymptomatic P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in south-central Oromia, an area with low, seasonal and unstable malaria transmission in Ethiopia. Of 55 microscopically confirmed asymptomatic infections, P. falciparum monoinfection accounted for 45.5 % and of 90 RDT positive asymptomatic infections, 66.7 % were P. falciparum. Although not statistically significant, P. falciparum accounted for a relatively large number of the asymptomatic infections as determined by both tests. The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia was highest in the younger age group. HRP-2-based RDTs specific for P. falciparum showed high false positivity rate compared to Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) specific to P. vivax. Although microscopy and RDT detected substantial numbers of asymptomatic infections in apparently healthy inhabitants, the use of a highly sensitive molecular diagnostics offers a more accurate assessment of the magnitude of asymptomatic infections.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 131 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 2 2%
Unknown 129 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 22 17%
Researcher 21 16%
Student > Master 20 15%
Student > Bachelor 9 7%
Student > Postgraduate 7 5%
Other 20 15%
Unknown 32 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 25 19%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 18 14%
Immunology and Microbiology 16 12%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 12 9%
Nursing and Health Professions 11 8%
Other 11 8%
Unknown 38 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 August 2015.
All research outputs
#4,162,894
of 8,278,198 outputs
Outputs from BMC Infectious Diseases
#1,898
of 3,705 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#111,027
of 230,405 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Infectious Diseases
#93
of 144 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,278,198 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 47th percentile – i.e., 47% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,705 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.0. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 230,405 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 47th percentile – i.e., 47% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 144 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 33rd percentile – i.e., 33% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.