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Screening for biomarkers reflecting the progression of Babesia microti infection

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, July 2018
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Screening for biomarkers reflecting the progression of Babesia microti infection
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, July 2018
DOI 10.1186/s13071-018-2951-0
Pubmed ID

Bin Xu, Xiu-Feng Liu, Yu-Chun Cai, Ji-Lei Huang, Rui-Xiang Zhang, Jun-Hu Chen, Xun-Jia Cheng, Xia Zhou, Xue-Nian Xu, Yan Zhou, Ting Zhang, Shen-Bo Chen, Jian Li, Qun-Feng Wu, Cheng-Song Sun, Yong-Feng Fu, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Wei Hu


Babesiosis is caused by the invasion of erythrocytes by parasites of the Babesia spp. Babesia microti is one of the primary causative agents of human babesiosis. To better understand the status of the disease, discovering key biomarkers of the different infection stages is crucial. This study investigated B. microti infection in the mouse model from 0 to 270 days post-infection (dpi), using blood smears, PCR assays and ELISA. PCR assays showed a higher sensitivity when compared to microscopic examination. Specific IgG antibodies could be detected from 7 days to 270 dpi. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was combined with western blotting and mass spectrometric analysis to screen for specific reactive antigens during both the peak parasitaemia period (7 dpi) and IgG antibody response peak period (30 dpi) by the infected mice plasma. The 87 positive reactive proteins were identified and then expressed with the wheat germ cell-free system. Protein microarrays of all 87 targeted proteins were produced and hybridized with the serial plasma of infected mice model. Based on the antigen reaction profile during the infection procedure, 6 antigens were selected and expressed in Escherichia coli. Due to an early response to IgM, lower immunoreactivity levels of IgG after two months and higher immunoreactivity level IgG during nine months, four recombinant proteins were selected for further characterization, namely rBm2D97(CCF75281.1), rBm2D33(CCF74637.1), rBm2D41(CCF75408.1) and rBm7(CCF73510.1). The diagnostic efficacy of the four recombinant protein candidates was evaluated in a clinical setting using babesiosis patient plasma. The rBm2D33 showed the highest sensitivity with a positive rate of 62.5%. Additional characterization of the two candidate proteins using a mouse vaccination assay, demonstrated that rBm2D41 could reduce peak parasitaemia by 37.4%, indicating its efficacy in preventing severe babesiosis. The detection technologies of microscopic examination, PCR assays and antibody tests showed different sensitivities and accuracy during the different stages of B. microti infection. Antibody detection has a unique significance for B. microti infection in the asymptomatic stages. Using immunoreactivity profiles, biomarkers for disease progression were identified and represent useful information for future the diagnosis and vaccine development for this serious disease of public health significance.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 32 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 32 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 10 31%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 16%
Student > Bachelor 3 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 6%
Student > Master 2 6%
Other 4 13%
Unknown 6 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 4 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 13%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 9%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 9%
Other 7 22%
Unknown 8 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 08 July 2018.
All research outputs
of 21,005,902 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
of 5,120 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 295,858 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,005,902 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 33rd percentile – i.e., 33% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,120 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.2. This one is in the 39th percentile – i.e., 39% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 295,858 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them