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Barriers to cardiovascular disease secondary prevention care in the West Bank, Palestine – a health professional perspective

Overview of attention for article published in Conflict and Health, July 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (89th percentile)

Mentioned by

2 blogs
8 tweeters


5 Dimensions

Readers on

30 Mendeley
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Barriers to cardiovascular disease secondary prevention care in the West Bank, Palestine – a health professional perspective
Published in
Conflict and Health, July 2018
DOI 10.1186/s13031-018-0165-x
Pubmed ID

Jane Collier, Hanna Kienzler


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and diabetes - have become a significant global burden on health. Particularly concerning are CVD rates, causing approximately 18 million deaths worldwide every year. The statistics show that the disease is no longer a predominantly high-income country phenomenon, but affects, increasingly, countries in both developing regions and conflict-affected areas. In the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), the focus of this article, CVD ranks top of ten NCD killers, accounting for approximately 37.6% of deaths. Key risk factors discerned in primary care settings have been related to both structural determinants (i.e. the Israeli occupation) and individual behavioural factors. Unfortunately, no data are available for secondary care settings in the region and, consequently, little is known about patients and their capacity for risk factor behaviour change to manage their CVD.To begin closing this gap in knowledge, our study provides insight into cardiovascular disease secondary prevention care with the overall aim to enhance the understanding of the complexities of managing NCDs like CVD in conflict-affected settings. Specifically, research was carried out among Palestinian health professionals who specialise in coronary artery disease in the West Bank to elicit their views on (a) how socio-political, health system and individual behavioural factors might hinder patients to change their health behaviour and impact on the provision of healthcare and (b) possible solutions for overcoming identified barriers to behaviour change on societal as well as individual-patient levels within secondary care provision in a context of protracted conflict. This study is based on a qualitative approach in order to provide more in-depth information about health beliefs and behaviours, experiences and views of health professionals with regards to CVD secondary care. In total, 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted among doctors providing treatment to patients with CVD in secondary care settings. Interviews focused on health professionals' perspectives on risk factors and perceived barriers to behaviour change among known CVD patients receiving secondary care. Interviewees were also asked to propose possible actions that could be taken to overcome the identified barriers at both societal and individual patient levels. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Study results confirmed our prior theory of the complex entanglement of socio-political, health system and individual-level factors with regards to CVD experience, health-seeking and treatment. Also confirmed was our assumption that it is crucial to understand experts' definitions and approaches to treatment in order to grasp their visions for appropriate and improved prevention and treatment options. In particular, study participants highlighted how political determinants, notably the detrimental impact of the Israeli occupation, and social determinants, directly and indirectly influence behavioural determinants due to physical and bureaucratic barriers to accessing health facilities, economic hardship and chronic stress. These stressors, in turn, were perceived as having a negative effect on individual behavioural risk factors including smoking, unhealthy diet and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Proposed solutions included more focused interventions from the Ministry of Health as well as surveillance, primary prevention and health promotion, and management to positively effect behaviour change in order to address the growing burden of CVD in the region. The study has highlighted medical professionals' perceptions of how structural and individual behavioural determinants influence their own and individual patient's abilities to manage cardiovascular risk factors in a setting affected by chronic conflict. Consequently, we propose that medical and social intervention strategies generally used to address CVD risk, be strategically adapted in order to be useful and effective in contexts of armed conflict. Specifically, we call for a solid understanding of the socio-political context and existing health services as well as health providers' and patients' health beliefs and related behaviours when developing future health options aimed at addressing CVD in the region. Moreover, for health provision to be effective as well as sustainable, attention needs to be given above all towards a solution for political change.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 30 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 30 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 6 20%
Student > Postgraduate 3 10%
Other 2 7%
Student > Bachelor 2 7%
Researcher 2 7%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 13 43%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Social Sciences 3 10%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 10%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Business, Management and Accounting 1 3%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 3%
Other 5 17%
Unknown 15 50%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 22. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 July 2019.
All research outputs
of 15,922,938 outputs
Outputs from Conflict and Health
of 393 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 276,218 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Conflict and Health
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,922,938 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 393 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 14.8. This one has done well, scoring higher than 80% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 276,218 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 89% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them