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The feasibility of a brain-computer interface functional electrical stimulation system for the restoration of overground walking after paraplegia

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, September 2015
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#2 of 1,161)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)

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Title
The feasibility of a brain-computer interface functional electrical stimulation system for the restoration of overground walking after paraplegia
Published in
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12984-015-0068-7
Pubmed ID
Authors

Christine E. King, Po T. Wang, Colin M. McCrimmon, Cathy CY Chou, An H. Do, Zoran Nenadic

Abstract

Direct brain control of overground walking in those with paraplegia due to spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been achieved. Invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) may provide a permanent solution to this problem by directly linking the brain to lower extremity prostheses. To justify the pursuit of such invasive systems, the feasibility of BCI controlled overground walking should first be established in a noninvasive manner. To accomplish this goal, we developed an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCI to control a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for overground walking and assessed its performance in an individual with paraplegia due to SCI. An individual with SCI (T6 AIS B) was recruited for the study and was trained to operate an EEG-based BCI system using an attempted walking/idling control strategy. He also underwent muscle reconditioning to facilitate standing and overground walking with a commercial FES system. Subsequently, the BCI and FES systems were integrated and the participant engaged in several real-time walking tests using the BCI-FES system. This was done in both a suspended, off-the-ground condition, and an overground walking condition. BCI states, gyroscope, laser distance meter, and video recording data were used to assess the BCI performance. During the course of 19 weeks, the participant performed 30 real-time, BCI-FES controlled overground walking tests, and demonstrated the ability to purposefully operate the BCI-FES system by following verbal cues. Based on the comparison between the ground truth and decoded BCI states, he achieved information transfer rates >3 bit/s and correlations >0.9. No adverse events directly related to the study were observed. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates for the first time that restoring brain-controlled overground walking after paraplegia due to SCI is feasible. Further studies are warranted to establish the generalizability of these results in a population of individuals with paraplegia due to SCI. If this noninvasive system is successfully tested in population studies, the pursuit of permanent, invasive BCI walking prostheses may be justified. In addition, a simplified version of the current system may be explored as a noninvasive neurorehabilitative therapy in those with incomplete motor SCI.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 128 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 262 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 7 3%
United Kingdom 2 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Ireland 1 <1%
France 1 <1%
Canada 1 <1%
New Zealand 1 <1%
Germany 1 <1%
Unknown 247 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 49 19%
Student > Master 45 17%
Researcher 44 17%
Student > Bachelor 34 13%
Student > Postgraduate 17 6%
Other 43 16%
Unknown 30 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 81 31%
Neuroscience 41 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 34 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 16 6%
Computer Science 11 4%
Other 37 14%
Unknown 42 16%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1096. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 April 2019.
All research outputs
#7,868
of 18,908,107 outputs
Outputs from Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
#2
of 1,161 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#89
of 258,637 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,908,107 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,161 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.8. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 258,637 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them