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Induction of virus-specific effector immune cell response limits virus replication and severe disease in mice infected with non-lethal West Nile virus Eg101 strain

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, September 2015
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Title
Induction of virus-specific effector immune cell response limits virus replication and severe disease in mice infected with non-lethal West Nile virus Eg101 strain
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12974-015-0400-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mukesh Kumar, Kelsey Roe, Maile O’Connell, Vivek R. Nerurkar

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. Herein, we investigated the immunological responses induced by two phylogenetically related WNV strains of lineage 1, WNV NY99, and WNV Eg101. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with WNV NY99 or WNV Eg101 and mortality, virus burden in the periphery and brain, type 1 interferon response, WNV-specific antibodies, leukocyte infiltration, and inflammatory responses were analyzed. As expected, WNV NY99 infected mice demonstrated high morbidity and mortality, whereas no morbidity and mortality was observed in WNV Eg101 infected mice. Virus titers were comparable in the serum of both WNV NY99 and WNV Eg101 infected mice at day 3 after inoculation; however, at day 6, the virus was cleared from WNV Eg101 infected mice but the virus titer remained high in the WNV NY99 infected mice. Virus was detected in the brains of both WNV NY99 and Eg101 infected mice, albeit significantly higher in the brains of WNV NY99 infected mice. Surprisingly, levels of type 1 interferon and WNV-specific antibodies were significantly higher in the serum and brains of WNV NY99 infected mice. Similarly, protein levels of multiple cytokines and chemokines were significantly higher in the serum and brains of WNV NY99 infected mice. In contrast, we observed significantly higher numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleens and brains of WNV Eg101 infected mice. Moreover, total number and percentage of IFN-γ and TNF-α producing WNV-specific CD8(+) T cells were also significantly high in WNV Eg101 infected mice. Our data demonstrate that induction of virus-specific effector immune cell response limits virus replication and severe WNV disease in Eg101 infected mice. Our data also demonstrate an inverse correlation between leukocyte accumulation and production of pro-inflammatory mediators in WNV-infected mice. Moreover, increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators was associated with high-virus titers and increased mortality in WNV NY99 infected mice.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 15 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 13%
Unknown 13 87%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Doctoral Student 3 20%
Student > Bachelor 3 20%
Other 2 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 13%
Student > Master 2 13%
Other 2 13%
Unknown 1 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 20%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 13%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 13%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 7%
Other 4 27%
Unknown 1 7%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 29 July 2016.
All research outputs
#5,909,892
of 8,154,593 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#694
of 1,031 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#148,588
of 237,416 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#37
of 53 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,154,593 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,031 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.9. This one is in the 28th percentile – i.e., 28% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 53 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 20th percentile – i.e., 20% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.