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Evolution and development of the adelphophagic, intracapsular Schmidt’s larva of the nemertean Lineus ruber

Overview of attention for article published in EvoDevo, September 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#31 of 313)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (91st percentile)

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2 blogs
14 tweeters
1 Facebook page
1 Google+ user
1 video uploader


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38 Mendeley
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Evolution and development of the adelphophagic, intracapsular Schmidt’s larva of the nemertean Lineus ruber
Published in
EvoDevo, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13227-015-0023-5
Pubmed ID

José M. Martín-Durán, Bruno C. Vellutini, Andreas Hejnol


The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage, which has diversified into an astonishing variety of ecological strategies. The Nemertea is a group of spiralians that exhibits a broad diversity of larval forms, including the iconic pilidium. A pelagic planktotrophic pilidium is the ancestral form in the Pilidiophora, but several lineages exhibit deviations of this condition, mostly as a transition to pelagic lecithotrophy. The most extreme case occurs, however, in the Pilidiophoran Lineus ruber, which exhibits an adelphophagic intracapsular pilidium, the so-called Schmidt's larva. We combined confocal laser scanning microscopy and gene expression studies to characterize the development and metamorphosis of the Schmidt's larva of L. ruber. The larva forms after gastrulation, and comprises a thin epidermis, a proboscis rudiment and two pairs of imaginal discs from which the juvenile will develop. The cells internalized during gastrulation form a blind gut and the blastopore gives rise to the mouth of the larva and juvenile. The Schmidt's larva eats other siblings that occupy the same egg capsule, accumulating nutrients for the juvenile. A gradual metamorphosis involves the differentiation of the juvenile cell types from the imaginal discs and the shedding of the larval epidermis. The expression of evolutionarily conserved anterior (foxQ2, six3/6, gsc, otx), endomesodermal (foxA, GATA456-a, twi-a) and posterior (evx, cdx) markers demonstrate that the juvenile retains the molecular patterning of the Schmidt's larva. After metamorphosis, the juveniles stay over 20 days within the egg masses, until they are fully mature and hatch. The evolution of the intracapsular Schmidt's larva involved the loss of the typical feeding structures of the planktotrophic pilidium and a precocious formation of the imaginal discs, as also observed in other pelagic lecithotrophic forms. However, no special adaptations are observed related to adelphophagy. As in planktotrophic pilidium, the molecular mechanism patterning the juvenile is only active in the imaginal discs and not during the early development of the larva, suggesting two separate molecular programs during nemertean embryogenesis. Our results illuminate the diversification of larval forms in the Pilidiophora and Nemertea, and thus on the developmental mechanisms underlying metazoan larval evolution.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 38 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 3%
Norway 1 3%
Unknown 36 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 10 26%
Student > Bachelor 7 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 18%
Student > Master 5 13%
Professor > Associate Professor 4 11%
Other 1 3%
Unknown 4 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 24 63%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 24%
Environmental Science 1 3%
Unknown 4 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 22. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 23 February 2017.
All research outputs
of 21,548,131 outputs
Outputs from EvoDevo
of 313 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 265,256 outputs
Outputs of similar age from EvoDevo
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Altmetric has tracked 21,548,131 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 313 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 9.4. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 265,256 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 91% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them