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Associations between urbanicity and malaria at local scales in Uganda

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, September 2015
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Title
Associations between urbanicity and malaria at local scales in Uganda
Published in
Malaria Journal, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0865-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Simon P. Kigozi, Deepa K. Pindolia, David L. Smith, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Agaba Katureebe, Maxwell Kilama, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Steve W. Lindsay, Sarah G. Staedke, Grant Dorsey, Moses R. Kamya, Andrew J. Tatem

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to show the greatest rates of urbanization over the next 50 years. Urbanization has shown a substantial impact in reducing malaria transmission due to multiple factors, including unfavourable habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes, generally healthier human populations, better access to healthcare, and higher housing standards. Statistical relationships have been explored at global and local scales, but generally only examining the effects of urbanization on single malaria metrics. In this study, associations between multiple measures of urbanization and a variety of malaria metrics were estimated at local scales. Cohorts of children and adults from 100 households across each of three contrasting sub-counties of Uganda (Walukuba, Nagongera and Kihihi) were followed for 24 months. Measures of urbanicity included density of surrounding households, vegetation index, satellite-derived night-time lights, land cover, and a composite urbanicity score. Malaria metrics included the household density of mosquitoes (number of female Anopheles mosquitoes captured), parasite prevalence and malaria incidence. Associations between measures of urbanicity and malaria metrics were made using negative binomial and logistic regression models. One site (Walukuba) had significantly higher urbanicity measures compared to the two rural sites. In Walukuba, all individual measures of higher urbanicity were significantly associated with a lower household density of mosquitoes. The higher composite urbanicity score in Walukuba was also associated with a lower household density of mosquitoes (incidence rate ratio = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.17-0.48, p < 0.001) and a lower parasite prevalence (odds ratio, OR = 0.44, CI 0.20-0.97, p = 0.04). In one rural site (Kihihi), only a higher density of surrounding households was associated with a lower parasite prevalence (OR = 0.15, CI 0.07-0.34, p < 0.001). And, in only one rural site (Nagongera) was living where NDVI ≤0.45 associated with higher incidence of malaria (IRR = 1.35, CI 1.35-1.70, p = 0.01). Urbanicity has been shown previously to lead to a reduction in malaria transmission at large spatial scales. At finer scales, individual household measures of higher urbanicity were associated with lower mosquito densities and parasite prevalence only in the site that was generally characterized as being urban. The approaches outlined here can help better characterize urbanicity at the household level and improve targeting of control interventions.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 81 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 1%
Nigeria 1 1%
Brazil 1 1%
Unknown 78 96%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 15 19%
Researcher 14 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 12%
Student > Bachelor 10 12%
Lecturer 5 6%
Other 21 26%
Unknown 6 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 21 26%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 14%
Nursing and Health Professions 9 11%
Social Sciences 9 11%
Unspecified 5 6%
Other 15 19%
Unknown 11 14%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 02 October 2015.
All research outputs
#3,028,173
of 6,422,619 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#1,493
of 2,274 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#108,356
of 201,191 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#98
of 131 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 6,422,619 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 29th percentile – i.e., 29% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,274 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 25th percentile – i.e., 25% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 201,191 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 36th percentile – i.e., 36% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 131 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.