Colonization with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a major risk factor for developing subsequent MDR infections.
We performed a prospective surveillance study in hospitalized patients at Siriraj Hospital. Nasal cavity, throat, inguinal area and rectal swabs were obtained within the first 48-h after admission, on day-5 after hospitalization and then every 7 days until discharge. Target bacteria included extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL), carbapenem-resistant-P.aeruginosa (CR-PA), carbapenem-resistant-A.baumannii (CR-AB) and methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA).
From January 2013-December 2014, 487 patients were enrolled. The baseline prevalence of colonization by ESBL, CR-PA, CR-AB and MRSA at any site was 52.2%, 6.8%, 4.7% and 7.2%, respectively. After 3-week of hospitalization, the prevalence of colonization by ESBL, CR-PA, CR-AB and MRSA increased to 71.7%, 47.2%, 18.9% and 18.9%, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that diabetes mellitus and recent cephalosporin exposure were the independent risk factors for baseline colonization by ESBL. The independent risk factors for CR-AB and/or CR-PA colonization were cerebrovascular diseases, previous hospitalization, transfer from another hospital/a LTCF and previous nasogastric tube use, whereas those for MRSA colonization were previous fluoroquinolone exposure and previous nasogastric tube use.
The baseline prevalence of colonization by ESBL was relatively high, whereas the baseline prevalence of colonization by CR-PA, CR-AB and MRSA was comparable to previous studies. There was an increasing trend in MDR bacteria colonization after hospitalization.