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Preferential production of G-CSF by a protein-like Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 secretory factor through activating TLR2-dependent signaling events without activation of JNKs

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, October 2015
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Title
Preferential production of G-CSF by a protein-like Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 secretory factor through activating TLR2-dependent signaling events without activation of JNKs
Published in
BMC Microbiology, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12866-015-0578-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Shahab Meshkibaf, Jӧrg Fritz, Marcelo Gottschalk, Sung Ouk Kim

Abstract

Different species and strains of probiotic bacteria confer distinct immunological responses on immune cells. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (GR-1) is a probiotic bacterial strain found in both the intestinal and urogenital tracts, and has immunomodulatory effects on several cell types including macrophages. However, detailed immunological responses and the signaling mechanism involved in the response are largely unknown. We examined the production of GR-1-induced cytokines/chemokines and signaling events in macrophages. Among 84 cytokines and chemokines examined, GR-1 discretely induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mRNA at highest levels (>60-fold) without inducing other cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (<5-fold). The toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6-agonist PAM2CSK4, TLR2/1-agonist PAM3CSK4 and TLR4-agonist lipopolysaccharide induced all of these inflammatory cytokines at high levels (>50-fold). The TLR2 ligand lipoteichoic acid activated all mitogen-activated kinases, Akt and NF-κB; whereas, GR-1 selectively activated extracellular regulated kinases and p38, NF-κB and Akt, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) in a TLR2-dependent manner. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that lack of JNKs activation by GR-1 caused inefficient production of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not G-CSF production. A secreted heat-labile protein-like molecule, 30-100 kDa in size, induced the preferential production of G-CSF. This study elucidated unique signaling events triggered by GR-1, resulting in selective production of the immunomodulatory cytokine G-CSF in macrophages.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 19 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 19 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Librarian 3 16%
Student > Master 3 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 16%
Student > Bachelor 3 16%
Lecturer 1 5%
Other 2 11%
Unknown 4 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 37%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 11%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 11%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 11%
Computer Science 1 5%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 5 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 June 2016.
All research outputs
#6,897,976
of 7,971,101 outputs
Outputs from BMC Microbiology
#1,088
of 1,339 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#201,383
of 242,293 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Microbiology
#64
of 85 outputs
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So far Altmetric has tracked 1,339 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.0. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 85 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.