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The Double-Edged Sword: How Evolution Can Make or Break a Live-Attenuated Virus Vaccine

Overview of attention for article published in Evolution: Education and Outreach, November 2011
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#10 of 766)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (93rd percentile)

Mentioned by

news
2 news outlets
twitter
147 tweeters
patent
3 patents
facebook
5 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page
video
1 video uploader

Readers on

mendeley
160 Mendeley
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Title
The Double-Edged Sword: How Evolution Can Make or Break a Live-Attenuated Virus Vaccine
Published in
Evolution: Education and Outreach, November 2011
DOI 10.1007/s12052-011-0365-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Kathryn A. Hanley

Abstract

Even students who reject evolution are often willing to consider cases in which evolutionary biology contributes to, or undermines, biomedical interventions. Moreover the intersection of evolutionary biology and biomedicine is fascinating in its own right. This review offers an overview of the ways in which evolution has impacted the design and deployment of live-attenuated virus vaccines, with subsections that may be useful as lecture material or as the basis for case studies in classes at a variety of levels. Live- attenuated virus vaccines have been modified in ways that restrain their replication in a host, so that infection (vaccination) produces immunity but not disease. Applied evolution, in the form of serial passage in novel host cells, is a "classical" method to generate live-attenuated viruses. However many live-attenuated vaccines exhibit reversion to virulence through back-mutation of attenuating mutations, compensatory mutations elsewhere in the genome, recombination or reassortment, or changes in quasispecies diversity. Additionally the combination of multiple live-attenuated strains may result in competition or facilitation between individual vaccine viruses, resulting in undesirable increases in virulence or decreases in immunogenicity. Genetic engineering informed by evolutionary thinking has led to a number of novel approaches to generate live-attenuated virus vaccines that contain substantial safeguards against reversion to virulence and that ameliorate interference among multiple vaccine strains. Finally, vaccines have the potential to shape the evolution of their wild type counterparts in counter-productive ways; at the extreme vaccine-driven eradication of a virus may create an empty niche that promotes the emergence of new viral pathogens.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 147 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 160 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 3 2%
Netherlands 1 <1%
Thailand 1 <1%
Unknown 155 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 31 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 29 18%
Student > Master 27 17%
Researcher 19 12%
Other 6 4%
Other 19 12%
Unknown 29 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 42 26%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 30 19%
Immunology and Microbiology 19 12%
Medicine and Dentistry 9 6%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 7 4%
Other 21 13%
Unknown 32 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 134. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 January 2022.
All research outputs
#209,212
of 20,118,107 outputs
Outputs from Evolution: Education and Outreach
#10
of 766 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#1,324
of 240,803 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Evolution: Education and Outreach
#1
of 16 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 20,118,107 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 766 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 10.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 240,803 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 16 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.