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Evolution of the EKA family of powdery mildew avirulence-effector genes from the ORF 1 of a LINE retrotransposon

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Genomics, November 2015
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  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (73rd percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (73rd percentile)

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9 tweeters

Citations

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23 Dimensions

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61 Mendeley
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Title
Evolution of the EKA family of powdery mildew avirulence-effector genes from the ORF 1 of a LINE retrotransposon
Published in
BMC Genomics, November 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-2185-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

Joelle Amselem, Marielle Vigouroux, Simone Oberhaensli, James K. M. Brown, Laurence V. Bindschedler, Pari Skamnioti, Thomas Wicker, Pietro D. Spanu, Hadi Quesneville, Soledad Sacristán

Abstract

The Avrk1 and Avra10 avirulence (AVR) genes encode effectors that increase the pathogenicity of the fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the powdery mildew pathogen, in susceptible barley plants. In resistant barley, MLK1 and MLA10 resistance proteins recognize the presence of AVRK1 and AVRA10, eliciting the hypersensitive response typical of gene for gene interactions. Avrk1 and Avra10 have more than 1350 homologues in Bgh genome, forming the EKA (Effectors homologous to Avr k 1 and Avr a 10) gene family. We tested the hypothesis that the EKA family originated from degenerate copies of Class I LINE retrotransposons by analysing the EKA family in the genome of Bgh isolate DH14 with bioinformatic tools specially developed for the analysis of Transposable Elements (TE) in genomes. The Class I LINE retrotransposon copies homologous to Avrk1 and Avra10 represent 6.5 % of the Bgh annotated genome and, among them, we identified 293 AVR/effector candidate genes. We also experimentally identified peptides that indicated the translation of several predicted proteins from EKA family members, which had higher relative abundance in haustoria than in hyphae. Our analyses indicate that Avrk1 and Avra10 have evolved from part of the ORF1 gene of Class I LINE retrotransposons. The co-option of Avra10 and Avrk1 as effectors from truncated copies of retrotransposons explains the huge number of homologues in Bgh genome that could act as dynamic reservoirs from which new effector genes may evolve. These data provide further evidence for recruitment of retrotransposons in the evolution of new biological functions.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 9 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 61 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Japan 1 2%
Germany 1 2%
Unknown 59 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 25%
Researcher 15 25%
Student > Bachelor 7 11%
Student > Master 4 7%
Other 4 7%
Other 9 15%
Unknown 7 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 35 57%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 14 23%
Computer Science 2 3%
Social Sciences 1 2%
Medicine and Dentistry 1 2%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 8 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 5. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 22 August 2018.
All research outputs
#3,456,830
of 13,406,897 outputs
Outputs from BMC Genomics
#1,956
of 7,864 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#73,211
of 281,784 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Genomics
#250
of 992 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,406,897 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 74th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 7,864 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.3. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 74% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 281,784 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 992 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 73% of its contemporaries.