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Sex differences in protein expression in the mouse brain and their perturbations in a model of Down syndrome

Overview of attention for article published in Biology of Sex Differences, November 2015
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#22 of 181)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (90th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (62nd percentile)

Mentioned by

1 news outlet
1 blog
4 tweeters
1 Facebook page


24 Dimensions

Readers on

32 Mendeley
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Sex differences in protein expression in the mouse brain and their perturbations in a model of Down syndrome
Published in
Biology of Sex Differences, November 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13293-015-0043-9
Pubmed ID

Aaron Block, Md. Mahiuddin Ahmed, A. Ranjitha Dhanasekaran, Suhong Tong, Katheleen J. Gardiner


While many sex differences in structure and function of the mammalian brain have been described, the molecular correlates of these differences are not broadly known. Also unknown is how sex differences at the protein level are perturbed by mutations that lead to intellectual disability (ID). Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of ID and is due to trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and the resulting increased expression of Hsa21-encoded genes. The Dp(10)1Yey mouse model (Dp10) of DS is trisomic for orthologs of 39 Hsa21 protein-coding genes that map to mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), including four genes with known sex differences in functional properties. How these genes contribute to the DS cognitive phenotype is not known. Using reverse phase protein arrays, levels of ~100 proteins/protein modifications were measured in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex of female and male controls and their trisomic Dp10 littermates. Proteins were chosen for their known roles in learning/memory and synaptic plasticity and include components of the MAPK, MTOR, and apoptosis pathways, immediate early genes, and subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Protein levels were compared between genotypes, sexes, and brain regions using a three-level mixed effects model and the Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing. In control mice, levels of approximately one half of the proteins differ significantly between females and males in at least one brain region; in the hippocampus alone, levels of 40 % of the proteins are significantly higher in females. Trisomy of the Mmu10 segment differentially affects female and male profiles, perturbing protein levels most in the cerebellum of female Dp10 and most in the hippocampus of male Dp10. Cortex is minimally affected by sex and genotype. Diverse pathways and processes are implicated in both sex and genotype differences. The extensive sex differences in control mice in levels of proteins involved in learning/memory illustrate the molecular complexity underlying sex differences in normal neurological processes. The sex-specific abnormalities in the Dp10 suggest the possibility of sex-specific phenotypic features in DS and reinforce the need to use female as well as male mice, in particular in preclinical evaluations of drug responses.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 32 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Netherlands 1 3%
Unknown 31 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 25%
Student > Bachelor 6 19%
Student > Master 4 13%
Researcher 4 13%
Professor > Associate Professor 3 9%
Other 5 16%
Unknown 2 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 22%
Neuroscience 6 19%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 6%
Other 7 22%
Unknown 2 6%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 16. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 February 2017.
All research outputs
of 11,402,114 outputs
Outputs from Biology of Sex Differences
of 181 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 251,176 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Biology of Sex Differences
of 8 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 11,402,114 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 181 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 12.2. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 251,176 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 8 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 5 of them.