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Insecticidal decay effects of long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying on Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Western Kenya

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, November 2015
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2 tweeters

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85 Mendeley
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Title
Insecticidal decay effects of long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual spraying on Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Western Kenya
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, November 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13071-015-1194-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Christine L. Wanjala, Guofa Zhou, Jernard Mbugi, Jemimah Simbauni, Yaw A. Afrane, Ednah Ototo, Maxwell Gesuge, Harrysone Atieli, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan

Abstract

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the first-line tools for malaria prevention and control in Africa. Vector resistance to insecticides has been extensively studied, however the insecticidal effects of the nets and sprayed walls on pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes has not been studied thoroughly. We evaluated the bioefficacy of LLINs of different ages and lambda-cyhalothrin (ICON 10cs) on the sprayed mud walls for a period of time on malaria vector survivorship. WHO tube bioassay was performed using diagnostic doses of lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05 %), permethrin (0.75 %) and deltamethrin (0.05 %). Cone bioassays were conducted on netting materials from 0 to 3 years old long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets. Wall bioassays were performed monthly on mud slabs sprayed with lambdacyhalothrin over a period of seven months. All bioassays used An. gambiae mosquitoes collected from the field and the laboratory susceptible reference Kisumu strain. Concentration of the insecticides on the netting materials was examined using the gas chromatography method. Mosquitoes were identified to species level using PCR and genotyped for the kdr gene mutation frequencies. WHO bioassays results showed that populations from five sites were highly resistant to the pyrethroids (mortalities ranged from 52.5 to 75.3 %), and two sites were moderately resistant to these insecticides (80.4 - 87.2 %). Homozygote kdr mutations of L1014S ranged from 73 to 88 % in An. gambiae s.s. dominant populations whereas L1014S mutation frequencies were relatively low (7-31 %) in An. arabiensis dominant populations. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mosquito mortality with time after the spray with both lambda-cyhalothrin (75 % mortality after six months) and with the age of LLINs (60 % mortality after 24 month). Field collected mosquitoes were able to survive exposure to both IRS and LLINs even with newly sprayed walls (86.6-93.5 % mortality) and new LLINs (77.5-85.0 % mortality), Wild mosquitoes collected from the field had significantly lower mortality rates to LLINs (59.6-85.0 %) than laboratory reared susceptible strain (100 %). Insecticide concentration decreased significantly from 0.14 μg/ml in the new nets to 0.077 μg/ml in nets older than 18 months (P < 0.05). This study confirms that insecticide decay and developing levels of resistance have a negative contribution to reduced efficacy of ITN and IRS in western Kenya. These factors contribute to decreased efficacy of pyrethroid insectides in ongoing malaria control programs. In order to mitigate against the impact of insecticide resistance and decay it is important to follow the WHO policy to provide the residents with new LLINs every three years of use while maintaining a high level of LLINs coverage and usage. There is also need for urgent development and deployment of non-pyrethroid based vector control tools.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 85 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Ghana 1 1%
Unknown 84 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 22 26%
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 16%
Student > Master 12 14%
Student > Bachelor 7 8%
Student > Postgraduate 5 6%
Other 8 9%
Unknown 17 20%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 22 26%
Medicine and Dentistry 17 20%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 9%
Environmental Science 5 6%
Nursing and Health Professions 4 5%
Other 11 13%
Unknown 18 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 17 November 2015.
All research outputs
#9,214,323
of 14,638,436 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#2,298
of 3,976 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#127,569
of 236,533 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#242
of 440 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 14,638,436 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 24th percentile – i.e., 24% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,976 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.6. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 236,533 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 36th percentile – i.e., 36% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 440 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.