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Transmembrane transporter expression regulated by the glucosylceramide pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Research Notes, November 2015
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Mentioned by

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3 tweeters

Citations

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6 Dimensions

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12 Mendeley
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Title
Transmembrane transporter expression regulated by the glucosylceramide pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans
Published in
BMC Research Notes, November 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13104-015-1613-y
Pubmed ID
Authors

Arpita Singh, Antonella Rella, John Schwacke, Caterina Vacchi-Suzzi, Chiara Luberto, Maurizio Del Poeta

Abstract

The sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and factors involved in the fungal GlcCer pathways were shown earlier to be an integral part of fungal virulence, especially in fungal replication at 37 °C, in neutral/alkaline pH and 5 % CO2 environments (e.g. alveolar spaces). Two mutants, ∆gcs 1 lacking glucosylceramide synthase 1 gene (GCS1) which catalyzes the formation of sphingolipid GlcCer from the C9-methyl ceramide and ∆smt1 lacking sphingolipid C9 methyltransferase gene (SMT1), which adds a methyl group to position nine of the sphingosine backbone of ceramide, of this pathway were attenuated in virulence and have a growth defect at the above-mentioned conditions. These mutants with either no or structurally modified GlcCer located on the cell-membrane have reduced membrane rigidity, which may have altered not only the physical location of membrane proteins but also their expression, as the pathogen's mode of adaptation to changing need. Importantly, pathogens are known to adapt themselves to the changing host environments by altering their patterns of gene expression. By transcriptional analysis of gene expression, we identified six genes whose expression was changed from their wild-type counterpart grown in the same conditions, i.e. they became either down regulated or up regulated in these two mutants. The microarray data was validated by real-time PCR, which confirmed their fold change in gene expression. All the six genes we identified, viz siderochrome-iron transporter (CNAG_02083), monosaccharide transporter (CNAG_05340), glucose transporter (CNAG_03772), membrane protein (CNAG_03912), membrane transport protein (CNAG_00539), and sugar transporter (CNAG_06963), are membrane-localized and have significantly altered gene expression levels. Therefore, we hypothesize that these genes function either independently or in tandem with a structurally modified cell wall/plasma membrane resulting from the modifications of the GlcCer pathway and thus possibly disrupt transmembrane signaling complex, which in turn contributes to cryptococcal osmotic, pH, ion homeostasis and its pathobiology. Six genes identified from gene expression microarrays by gene set enrichment analysis and validated by RT-PCR, are membrane located and associated with the growth defect at neutral-alkaline pH due to the absence and or presence of a structurally modified GlcCer. They may be involved in the transmembrane signaling network in Cryptococcus neoformans, and therefore the pathobiology of the fungus in these conditions.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 12 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 12 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 42%
Student > Master 2 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 1 8%
Other 1 8%
Librarian 1 8%
Other 1 8%
Unknown 1 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 25%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 17%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1 8%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 8%
Computer Science 1 8%
Other 2 17%
Unknown 2 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 September 2016.
All research outputs
#4,204,292
of 8,342,643 outputs
Outputs from BMC Research Notes
#951
of 2,080 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#138,768
of 297,672 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Research Notes
#74
of 199 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,342,643 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 47th percentile – i.e., 47% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,080 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.7. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 297,672 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 199 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 58% of its contemporaries.