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Can the activation of plasminogen/plasmin system of the host by metabolic products of Dirofilaria immitis participate in heartworm disease endarteritis?

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, April 2015
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Title
Can the activation of plasminogen/plasmin system of the host by metabolic products of Dirofilaria immitis participate in heartworm disease endarteritis?
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, April 2015
DOI 10.1186/s13071-015-0799-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Javier González-Miguel, Rodrigo Morchón, Elena Carretón, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Fernando Simón

Abstract

Proliferative endarteritis is one of the key pathological mechanisms of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis, a cosmopolitan parasitosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis affecting dogs and cats around the world. It has been shown that the excretory/secretory antigens from D. immitis adult worms (DiES) bind plasminogen (PLG) and activate fibrinolysis, which can lead to a survival mechanism for the parasite in its intravascular environment. However, overproduction of plasmin (final product of the route) has been related to pathological processes similar to those described in proliferative endarteritis. The aim of this study is to relate the appearance of this pathological condition with the activation of the PLG/plasmin system of the host by DiES. Cell proliferation through the crystal violet technique, cell migration by wound healing assay and degradation of the extracellular matrix by measuring collagen degradation and levels of matrix metalloproteinases were studied in an "in vitro" model using canine vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These cells were treated with a mixture of DiES + PLG. Untreated cells, cells only stimulated with DiES or with PLG, or with a mixture of DiES + PLG + εACA (an inhibitor of the PLG-plasmin conversion) were employed as controls. In addition, the effect of DiES on the expression of the fibrinolytic activators tPA and uPA, the inhibitor PAI-1 and the PLG receptor Annexin A2 was analyzed in both types of cultures by western blot. Plasmin generated by DiES + PLG binding produced a significant increase in the cell proliferation and migration of the endothelial and smooth muscle cells, as well as an increase in the destruction of the extracellular matrix based on a further degradation of Type I Collagen and an increased level of matrix metalloproteinase-2. DiES also induce an increase in the expression of tPA and uPA in endothelial cells in culture, as well as a decrease in the expression of PAI-1 in both types of cells. Our study reports an interrelationship between plasmin caused by fibrinolysis activation by metabolic products of D. immitis and the appearance of pathological events similar to those described in the emergence of proliferative endarteritis in the cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 28 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 28 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 6 21%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 18%
Student > Master 4 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 11%
Professor > Associate Professor 2 7%
Other 5 18%
Unknown 3 11%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 7 25%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 25%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 11%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 11%
Unspecified 1 4%
Other 2 7%
Unknown 5 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 10 January 2016.
All research outputs
#4,173,745
of 8,295,152 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#1,136
of 2,301 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#153,621
of 320,570 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#97
of 182 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,295,152 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 47th percentile – i.e., 47% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,301 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.7. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 320,570 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 182 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 40th percentile – i.e., 40% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.