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An investigation of the ‘female camouflage effect’ in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences

Overview of attention for article published in Molecular Autism, January 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#45 of 614)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (97th percentile)

Mentioned by

blogs
4 blogs
twitter
66 tweeters
facebook
10 Facebook pages
video
1 video uploader

Citations

dimensions_citation
142 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
434 Mendeley
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Title
An investigation of the ‘female camouflage effect’ in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences
Published in
Molecular Autism, January 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13229-016-0073-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Agnieszka Rynkiewicz, Björn Schuller, Erik Marchi, Stefano Piana, Antonio Camurri, Amandine Lassalle, Simon Baron-Cohen

Abstract

Autism spectrum conditions (autism) are diagnosed more frequently in boys than in girls. Females with autism may have been under-identified due to not only a male-biased understanding of autism but also females' camouflaging. The study describes a new technique that allows automated coding of non-verbal mode of communication (gestures) and offers the possibility of objective, evaluation of gestures, independent of human judgment. The EyesWeb software platform and the Kinect sensor during two demonstration activities of ADOS-2 (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition) were used. The study group consisted of 33 high-functioning Polish girls and boys with formal diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome aged 5-10, with fluent speech, IQ average and above and their parents (girls with autism, n = 16; boys with autism, n = 17). All children were assessed during two demonstration activities of Module 3 of ADOS-2, administered in Polish, and coded using Polish codes. Children were also assessed with Polish versions of the Eyes and Faces Tests. Parents provided information on the author-reviewed Polish research translation of SCQ (Social Communication Questionnaire, Current and Lifetime) and Polish version of AQ Child (Autism Spectrum Quotient, Child). Girls with autism tended to use gestures more vividly as compared to boys with autism during two demonstration activities of ADOS-2. Girls with autism made significantly more mistakes than boys with autism on the Faces Test. All children with autism had high scores in AQ Child, which confirmed the presence of autistic traits in this group. The current communication skills of boys with autism reported by parents in SCQ were significantly better than those of girls with autism. However, both girls with autism and boys with autism improved in the social and communication abilities over the lifetime. The number of stereotypic behaviours in boys significantly decreased over life whereas it remained at a comparable level in girls with autism. High-functioning females with autism might present better on non-verbal (gestures) mode of communication than boys with autism. It may camouflage other diagnostic features. It poses risk of under-diagnosis or not receiving the appropriate diagnosis for this population. Further research is required to examine this phenomenon so appropriate gender revisions to the diagnostic assessments might be implemented.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 66 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 434 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 <1%
Netherlands 1 <1%
Mexico 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Unknown 429 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 78 18%
Student > Master 68 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 60 14%
Researcher 41 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 38 9%
Other 70 16%
Unknown 79 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 162 37%
Medicine and Dentistry 48 11%
Social Sciences 27 6%
Neuroscience 23 5%
Nursing and Health Professions 18 4%
Other 63 15%
Unknown 93 21%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 72. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 October 2021.
All research outputs
#396,599
of 19,180,943 outputs
Outputs from Molecular Autism
#45
of 614 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#9,163
of 358,117 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Molecular Autism
#1
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 19,180,943 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 614 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 28.9. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 358,117 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them